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Luster D.G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | McMahon M.B.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Edwards H.H.,Western Illinois University | Boerma B.L.,Lincoln College | And 3 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal agent of Asian soybean rust (ASR), continues to spread across the southeast and midsouth regions of the United States, necessitating the use of fungicides by producers. Our objective in this research was to identify ASR proteins expressed early during infection for the development of immunodiagnostic assays. We have identified and partially characterized a small gene family encoding extracellular proteins in the P. pachyrhizi urediniospore wall, termed PHEPs (for Phakopsora extracellular protein). Two highly expressed protein family members, PHEP 107 and PHEP 369, were selected as ideal immunodiagnostic targets for antibody development, after we detected PHEPs in plants as early as 3 days postinfection (dpi). Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs; 2E8E5-1 and 3G6H7-3) generated against recombinant PHEP 369 were tested for sensitivity against the recombinant protein and extracts from ASR-infected plants and for specificity against a set of common soybean pathogens. These antibodies should prove applicable in immunodiagnostic assays to detect infected soybeans and to identify ASR spores from sentinel surveillance plots. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. Source


Froding B.E.E.,Lincoln College
Neuroethics | Year: 2011

This article explores the respective roles that medical and technological cognitive enhancements, on the one hand, and the moral and epistemic virtues traditionally understood, on the other, can play in enabling us to lead the good life. It will be shown that neither the virtues nor cognitive enhancements (of the kind we have access to today or in the foreseeable future) on their own are likely to enable most people to lead the good life. While the moral and epistemic virtues quite plausibly are both necessary and sufficient for the good life in theory, virtue ethics is often criticised for being elitist and unachievable in practice for the vast majority. Some cognitive enhancements, on the other hand, might be necessary for the good life but are far from sufficient for such an existence. Here it will be proposed that a combination of virtue and some cognitive enhancements is preferable. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Frost T.D.G.,Lincoln College | Sinha D.,Brasenose College | Gilbert B.J.,Green Templeton College
Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine | Year: 2014

When an individual facing intractable pain is given an estimate of a few months to live, does hastening death become a viable and legitimate alternative for willing patients? Has the time come for physicians to do away with the traditional notion of healthcare as maintaining or improving physical and mental health, and instead accept their own limitations by facilitating death when requested? The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge held the 2013 Varsity Medical Debate on the motion " This House Would Legalise Assisted Dying" This article summarises the key arguments developed over the course of the debate. We will explore how assisted dying can affect both the patient and doctor; the nature of consent and limits of autonomy; the effects on society; the viability of a proposed model; and, perhaps most importantly, the potential need for the practice within our current medico-legal framework. © 2014 Frost et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Saunders J.J.,University of Illinois at Springfield | Grimm E.C.,University of Illinois at Springfield | Widga C.C.,University of Illinois at Springfield | Campbell G.D.,Lincoln College | And 6 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2010

Thirteen new chronometric dates for Illinois proboscideans are considered in relation to well-dated pollen records from northeastern and central Illinois. These dates span an interval from 21,228 to 12,944 cal BP. When compared to pollen spectra, it is evident that Mammut americanum inhabited spruce (Picea) and black ash (Fraxinus nigra) forest during the Bølling-Allerød (14,700-12,900 cal BP) and early Younger Dryas (12,900-11,650 cal BP) chronozones. Both Mammuthus jeffersonii and Mammuthus primigenius inhabited spruce dominated open-woodland during the Oldest Dryas chronozone, while M. primigenius persisted in a forest of predominantly black ash during the Allerød chronozone. A newly discovered specimen from Lincoln, IL, clarifies the taxonomic distinction between M. primigenius and M. jeffersonii. Hitherto, a paradigm of proboscidean succession during the full- to late-glacial periods was based on the vegetation succession of steppe tundra-like vegetation to spruce forest to spruce-deciduous forest. The presumed proboscidean succession was that of cold, dry steppe-adapted M. primigenius succeeded by more mesic-tolerant M. jeffersonii that in turn was succeeded by the wet forest-adapted M. americanum. Reported data do not support this view and indicate a need for re-evaluation of assumptions of proboscidean ecology and history, e.g., the environmental tolerances and habits of M. primigenius in regions south of 55°N, and its dynamic relationship with other proboscidean taxa. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. Source


Rahmatullah M.,University of Development Alternative | Jahan R.,University of Development Alternative | Khatun M.A.,University of Development Alternative | Khatun M.A.,Lincoln College | And 8 more authors.
American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture | Year: 2010

An ethnomedicinal survey was carried out at Station Purbo Para village of Jamalpur Sadar sub-district in Jamalpur district of Bangladesh. Information on 121 medicinal plant species was obtained from the folk medicinal practitioners. All plants were screened in the scientific databases and scientific journals for pharmacological activities or presence of phytochemicals, which could be relevant to their folk medicinal uses. 61 plants (50.4%) of the total were found to have relevant pharmacological activities consistent with their uses. The actual number of relevant plants can increase further for a number of plants used by the folk medicinal practitioners are yet to be studied through relevant scientific experiments. The results suggest that the medicinal plants used by the folk medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh cannot be dismiised as irrelevant; in fact, the present study demonstrates that a substantial percentage of plants should be scientifically studied as soon as possible in a thorough manner for they can be sources of potentially important and efficacious drugs. © 2010, American Eurasian Network for Scientific Information. Source

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