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Lincoln, NE, United States

Welsh E.M.,Lincoln | French S.A.,University of Minnesota | Wall M.,University of Minnesota
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior | Year: 2011

Objective: To confirm previously reported associations between family meal frequency and dietary intake, and to examine family cohesion as a potential mediator of this relationship. Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Data collected at baseline via questionnaire. Setting: Randomized, controlled household weight gain prevention trial. Participants: Participants were 152 adults and 75 adolescents from 90 community households. Variables Measured: Family meal frequency assessed with a single question. Perceived family cohesion measured by the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale-III. Usual intake of targeted food items assessed with modified food frequency questionnaire. Analysis: Hierarchical linear regression with mediation analysis. Statistical significance set at α-level .05. Results: Family meal frequency was associated with intake of fruits and vegetables in adults, and sweets and sugar-sweetened beverages in adolescents. Family meal frequency was positively correlated with perceived family cohesion (r = 0.41, P < .01). Partial mediation by family cohesion was observed for family meal frequency and sweets intake in adolescents. Conclusions and Implications: Results suggest that family cohesion is not a consistent mediator of relationship between family meal frequency and individual dietary intake. Future studies should assess additional plausible mediators of this relationship in order to better understand the effect of family meals on dietary intake. © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education.

Irmak S.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Specht J.E.,Lincoln | Odhiambo L.O.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Rees J.M.,UNL Clay County | Cassman K.G.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Transactions of the ASABE | Year: 2014

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] yield, irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE), crop water use efficiency (CWUE), evapotranspiration water use efficiency (ETWUE), and soil water extraction response to eleven treatments of full, limited, or delayed irrigation versus a rainfed control were investigated using a subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system at a research site in south-central Nebraska. The SDI system laterals were 0.40 m deep in every other row middle of 0.76 m spaced plant rows. Actual evapotranspiration (ET a) was quantified in all treatments and used to schedule irrigation events on a 100% ETa replacement basis in all but three of the eleven treatments (i.e., 75% ETa replacement was used in two, and 60% ETa replacement was used in one). The irrigation amount (Ia) applied at each event was 100% of the ETa amount, except for two 100% ET a treatments in which only 65% or 50% of the water needed to cover the treatment plot area was applied to enable a test of a partial surface area-based irrigation approach. The first irrigation event was delayed until soybean stage R3 (begin pod) in two 100% Ia treatments, but thereafter they were irrigated with either 100% or 75% ETa replacement. Two 100% ET a and 100% Ia treatments also were used to evaluate soybean response to nitrogen (N) application methods (i.e., a preplant method versus N injection using the SDI system). Soybean ETa varied from 452 mm for the rainfed treatment to 600 mm (30% greater) for the fully irrigated treatment (100% ETa and 100% Ia) in 2007, and from 473 to 579 mm (20% greater) for the same treatments, respectively, in 2008. Among the irrigated treatments, 100% ETa and 65% Ia had the lowest 2007 ETa value (557 mm), whereas 100% ETa and 50% Ia had the lowest 2008 ETa (498 mm). The 100%, 75%, and 60% ETa treatments with 100% Ia had respective actual ETa values that declined linearly in 2008 (i.e., 579, 538, and 498 mm), but not in 2007. Seasonal totals for ETa versus Ia exhibited a linear relationship (R2 = 0.68 in 2007 and R2 = 0.67 in 2008). Irrigation enhanced soybean yields from rainfed yield baselines of 4.04 ton ha-1 in 2007 and 4.82 ton ha -1 in 2008) to a maximum of 4.94 ton ha-1 attained in 2007 with the delay to R3 irrigation treatment (its yield was significantly greater, p < 0.05, than that of the seven other treatments) and 4.97 ton ha-1 attained in 2008 with the 100% ETa and 100% Ia preplant N treatment. Seed yield had a quadratic relationship with irrigation water applied and a linear relationship with ETa that was stronger in the drier year of 2007. Each 25.4 mm incremental increase in seasonal irrigation water applied increased soybean yield by 0.323 ton ha -1 (beyond the intercept) in 2007 and by 0.037 ton ha-1 in 2008. Each 25.4 mm increase in ETa generated a yield increase of 0.114 ton ha-1 (beyond the intercept) in 2007, but only 0.02 ton ha-1 in the wetter year of 2008. This research demonstrated that delaying the onset of irrigation until the R3 stage and practicing full irrigation thereafter for soybean grown on silt loam soils resulted in yields (and crop water productivity) that were similar to full-season irrigation scheduling strategies, and this result may be applicable in other regions with edaphic and climatic characteristics similar to those in south-central Nebraska. © 2014 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.

Moses W.J.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Gitelson A.A.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Perk R.L.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Gurlin D.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | And 4 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2012

Algorithms based on red and near infra-red (NIR) reflectances measured using field spectrometers have been previously shown to yield accurate estimates of chlorophyll-a concentration in turbid productive waters, irrespective of variations in the bio-optical characteristics of water. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of NIR-red models when applied to multi-temporal airborne reflectance data acquired by the hyperspectral sensor, Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Applications (AISA), with non-uniform atmospheric effects across the dates of data acquisition. The results demonstrated the capability of the NIR-red models to capture the spatial distribution of chlorophyll-a in surface waters without the need for atmospheric correction. However, the variable atmospheric effects did affect the accuracy of chlorophyll-a retrieval. Two atmospheric correction procedures, namely, Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Adjustment of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH) and QUick Atmospheric Correction (QUAC), were applied to AISA data and their results were compared. QUAC produced a robust atmospheric correction, which led to NIR-red algorithms that were able to accurately estimate chlorophyll-a concentration, with a root mean square error of 5.54mgm -3 for chlorophyll-a concentrations in the range 2.27-81.17mgm -3. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the combined crime rate and staffing levels of a patrol area affect patrol officers’ productivity. Specifically, the author identified and analyzed two macro-level correlates of patrol officer productivity: reported violent crimes per officer and reported property crimes per officer (a beat’s “crime-to-cop” ratios). Design/methodology/approach – Using hierarchical linear modeling, the author estimated the effects of a patrol area’s violent crimes per officer ratio and property crimes per officer ratio on the annual number of traffic citations, warrants, misdemeanor arrests, and felony arrests generated by patrol officers (n=302). The author also examined the effect of these crime-to-cop ratios on a more advanced productivity metric. Findings – The results suggest that a patrol area’s rate of property crimes per officer is associated with a moderate decrease in an officer’s annual number of traffic citations, warrant arrests, and misdemeanor arrests; a patrol area’s rate of violent crimes per officer is also associated with a moderate decrease in an officer’s annual number of traffic citations; and a patrol area’s rate of violent crimes per officer is associated with a moderate increase in an officer’s annual number of warrant and misdemeanor arrests. Notably, the crime-to-cop ratios are not correlated with a more sophisticated patrol productivity metric. Research limitations/implications – The author analyzed data from a mid-sized US police department that uses a generalists policing style. It is unknown if these results translate to smaller or larger police departments, as well as those agencies practicing a specialized policing style. Practical implications – The findings suggest that police scholars should not only recognize how the crime-to-cop ratios of a patrol area might impact patrol officer productivity, but also incorporate more sophisticated metrics of patrol officer activity in future studies. These findings likewise signal to police practitioners that an area’s crime-to-cop ratios should be considered when allocating officers and other resources across patrol areas. Originality/value – To the authors knowledge, this is the first study to identify and examine the link between a patrol area’s crime-to-cop ratios and patrol officer productivity. © 2016, © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Bryant K.A.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Van Schooneveld T.C.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Thapa I.,University of Nebraska at Omaha | Bastola D.,University of Nebraska at Omaha | And 5 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2013

We describe the transfer of blaKPC-4 from Enterobacter cloacae to Serratia marcescens in a single patient. DNA sequencing revealed that KPC-4 was encoded on an IncL/M plasmid, pNE1280, closely related to pCTX-M360. Further analysis found that KPC-4 was encoded within a novel Tn4401 element (Tn4401f) containing a truncated tnpA and lacking tnpR, ISKpn7 left, and Tn4401 IRL-1, which are conserved in other Tn4401 transposons. This study highlights the continued evolution of Tn4401 transposons and movement to multiple plasmid backbones that results in acquisition by multiple species of Gram-negative bacilli. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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