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Blanes, Spain

Haggerty R.,Oregon State University | Argerich A.,University of Barcelona | Marti E.,Limnology group
Water Resources Research | Year: 2010

A "smart" tracer is a tracer that provides, directly or through measurement of its concentration or in combination with another compound, at least one "bit" more of information about the environment through which it travels than a conservative tracer. In this study we propose and present the chemical compound resazurin as a smart tracer to assess the coupling between solute transport and microbiological activity in sediment-water interfaces in freshwaters. Resazurin is a weakly fluorescent redox-sensitive dye that undergoes an irreversible reduction to strongly fluorescent resorufin under mildly reducing conditions, most commonly in the presence of living microorganisms. To investigate the suitability of resazurin as a smart tracer, we characterized the decay, sorption, reaction, and transport behavior of resazurin and resorufin in various waters and sediments using laboratory experiments. Results show that resazurin irreversibly and rapidly reacts to resorufin in colonized sediment with pseudo-first-order behavior and a rate coefficient of 1.41 h -1. This reaction is 3 orders of magnitude faster than that in stream water alone, indicating the tracer is sensitive to microbiological activity and associated sediment-water interactions. The compounds are affected by significant sorption, with an approximately linear isotherm and a K d of 6.63 mL/g for resorufin in sediment with 2.19% organic carbon. The compounds are stable over weeks in natural water, except in the presence of strong light where significant photochemical decay may occur more rapidly. © Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union. Source

Argerich A.,University of Barcelona | Argerich A.,Oregon State University | Marti E.,Limnology group | Sabater F.,University of Barcelona | And 2 more authors.
Aquatic Sciences | Year: 2011

Quantification of the transient storage zone (As) has become critical in stream biogeochemical studies addressed to examine factors controlling nutrient uptake. It is expected that higher As may enhance the interaction between nutrients and biota and thus, increase nutrient uptake. However, results from the literature are controversial. We hypothesized that besides of the size of As, the intrinsic physical and biological characteristics of stream structures that generate As are also relevant for nutrient uptake. We performed 24 additions of phosphate, ammonium, and chloride in four reaches of a man-made channel where we introduced three types of naturally colonized substrata packs (mud, sand and cobbles) to modify As. We estimated ammonium and phosphate uptake coefficients in both the main channel and As using a solute transport model (OTIS-P) and compared the results among reaches with different substrata types. The introduction of substrata packs decreased water velocity and increased As similarly among treatments. Nutrient uptake coefficients in the main channel were similar among reaches with different type substrata packs; however, nutrient uptake coefficients measured in As differed among them as well as the ratio between ammonium and phosphorus uptake coefficients in As, which were 1. 6 in reaches with mud packs and 0. 02 in reaches with sand or cobble packs. Results obtained in this study suggest that the contribution of As in nutrient uptake not only depends on the size of As but on the type of materials used to increase As, and thus, have biogeochemical implications on restoration projects aimed to modify channel morphology. © 2011 Springer Basel AG. Source

Merseburger G.,University of Barcelona | Marti E.,Limnology group | Sabater F.,University of Barcelona | Ortiz J.D.,Limnology group
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2011

We examined the effect of point-source inputs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) on in-stream uptake of ammonium, nitrate and phosphate and compared it between two streams draining catchments with contrasting land use. The selected streams were La Tordera and Gurri (NE Spain), draining a forest- and an agriculture-dominated catchment, respectively. In each stream, we compared nutrient uptake metrics, estimated from nutrient additions, between two reaches located upstream and downstream of a WWTP input. Measurements were done on 8-9 dates during 2002-2003.In La Tordera, the point-source increased concentrations of all studied nutrients; whereas in Gurri, this effect was less evident. Point-source effects on nutrient uptake differed between the two streams, and among solutes. In La Tordera, uptake lengths (Sw) of ammonium and phosphate averaged hundreds of meters above the point-source, and increased (i.e., decreased uptake efficiency) 4 and 5 times, respectively, below the point-source. Sw of nitrate was ≥2km regardless of reach location. In Gurri, Sw of all studied nutrients was within the km range in the two reaches. In this stream, diffuse nutrient inputs from adjacent fields may overwhelm the local effect of the point-source input.Uptake velocities (vf) of the studied nutrients ranged between 10EXP-6 and 10EXP-4m/s in the two streams, and were similar between the two reaches in each stream. However, phosphate vf decreased under increasing concentrations following a power function. This trend remained significant when combining our results with those compiled from literature, suggesting the efficiency loss response may be a general trend for phosphate across streams.The relative increases in uptake rates (U) below the point-source were proportional to the relative point-source contribution to downstream nutrient loads, especially for ammonium and nitrate. However, the increases in U were not enough to compensate for the increases in nutrient loads downstream of the WWTP input. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

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