Ioannina, Greece
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Groves J.R.,Lime Technology | Wang Y.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology
Journal of Paleontology | Year: 2013

A comprehensive, high resolution stratigraphic database of fusulinoidean foraminifers reveals that this group of protists suffered extreme losses during the Guadalupian extinction. Most species (88%) were eliminated gradually over the course of 9 myr during the Wordian and Capitanian ages. A pulse of greatly elevated per capita extinction frequency occurred during the last million years of the Capitanian (260-259 Ma). Contrary to prevailing opinion, the end-Capitanian event did not preferentially eliminate large, morphologically complex species in the families Schwagerinidae and Neoschwagerinidae, because most species in those families were already extinct. Rather, 69 percent of the species eliminated at the end of the Capitanian were small, morphologically conservative representatives of the Ozawainellidae, Schubertellidae and Staffellidae. Survivors from these families comprised the low-diversity association of Wuchiapingian fusulinoideans. Schubertellids, and to a lesser extent ozawainellids, diversified in the late Wuchiapingian and Changhsingian ages before the final demise of fusulinoideans during the end-Permian mass extinction. The Wordian-Capitanian fusulinoidean attrition might have been caused by photosymbiont loss and habitat reduction stemming from an interval of global cooling termed the Kamura event (∼265-259.5 Ma), although the onset of fusulinoidean diversity decline predates geochemical evidence for the beginning of the Kamura event by ∼3 myr. The end-Capitanian extinction pulse might reflect environmental deterioration from the combined effects of global cooling, Emeishan effusive volcanism and sea-level lowstand. Copyright © 2013, The Paleontological Society.

Babek O.,Masaryk University | Babek O.,Palacky University | Kalvoda J.,Masaryk University | Cossey P.,Staffordshire University | And 3 more authors.
Sedimentary Geology | Year: 2013

We studied the relationships between stratigraphic distribution of outcrop spectral gamma-ray, magnetic susceptibility and carbonate facies stacking patterns across the regionally significant transgressive-regressive cycle at the Tournaisian/Viséan boundary (Tn/V, early Carboniferous) in southern Great Britain and Ireland (South Wales, North Staffordshire and Dublin Basin). The Tn/V boundary coincides with a prominent climatic pulse connected with the Late Paleozoic glaciation of Gondwana. The aim was to correlate the gamma-ray and magnetic susceptibility log patterns in carbonate ramp- and basin settings and discuss the global/regional nature and magnitude of this transgressive-regressive cycle. A robust ramp-to-basin correlation was produced based on the log patterns, facies stacking patterns and foraminifer biostratigraphy. The concentrations of K and Th, the "clay" gamma-ray values and, partly, magnetic susceptibility are dependent on facies and show systematic changes along the inferred bathymetric profile from inner ramp to outer ramp and basin. A model of carbonate productivity-driven dilution of fine-grained siliciclastics in CaCO3 as the major control on the petrophysical patterns is discussed. The cleaning-up and cleaning-down petrophysical trends are related to down-dip and up-dip shifts of the carbonate factory with changing relative sea level. In middle-to-outer ramp and basin settings, this generates petrophysical trends just opposite to Paleozoic carbonate shelves where peaks in magnetic susceptibility are known to be associated with peak regressions. A distinct, late Tournaisian to early Viséan regressive-to-transgressive cycle with a prominent sequence boundary located close to the Tn/V stage boundary can be seen in the sections. Glacioeustatic origin of the sequence boundary is inferred from its correlation with Tn/V boundary sections from Europe, carbon isotope data from South China and the glacial deposits in the southern hemisphere mentioned by previous authors. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Kalvoda J.,Masaryk University | Babek O.,Palacky University | Devuyst F.X.,Lime Technology | Sevastopulo G.D.,Trinity College Dublin
Bulletin of Geosciences | Year: 2011

A study of three carbonate and carbonate-siliciclastic sections at the Tournaisian-Viséan (Tn-V) boundary in the Dublin Basin (Ireland), has been carried out using high resolution foraminiferal biostratigraphy and gamma-ray spectrometry. The aim was to identify the Tn-V boundary and trace correlatable log patterns in different environmental settings of the Dublin Basin. The foraminiferal fauna in the heterozoan and mixed heterozoan-photozoan (foramderm and bryonoderm extended) late Tournaisian shallow ramp facies and its calciturbidite products is taxonomically impoverished and resembles the similar impoverished foraminiferal associations of western Canada interpreted as reflecting upwelling zones. The increase of photozoan bioclasts which occurs in the latest Tournaisian is accompanied by the entry of important foraminiferal guides of the Tn-V boundary interval. The combination of biostratigraphic and spectral gamma-ray data proved to be a useful tool for the identification of the sequence boundary just below the Tn-V boundary across the different environmental settings of the Dublin Basin. The recognized sea-level fall is correlatable across the London Brabant Massif from western Ireland through to England, South Wales and Belgium.

Groves J.R.,Lime Technology | Pike M.,University of Northern Iowa | Westley K.,TestAmerica Inc.
Palaios | Year: 2012

Late Paleozoic fusuline foraminifera are thought to have hosted photosymbionts, as do modern larger foraminifera, but the ancient host-symbiont relationship has never been demonstrated conclusively. Among modern larger foraminifera, deeper-dwelling species exhibit large surface-to-volume ratios in order to maximize the amount of sunlight that can be captured for use by photosymbionts. Shallower-dwelling species exhibit smaller surface-to-volume ratios in order to limit incoming sunlight, especially ultraviolet radiation. If modern symbiont-bearing foraminifera are appropriate analogues for fusulines, then deeper-dwelling fusulines ought to exhibit larger surface-to-volume ratios than shallower-dwelling ones. This prediction was tested by analyzing fusuline shells from the Virgilian (Upper Pennsylvanian) Oread, Lecompton and Deer Creek cyclothems in Kansas. Specimens from deeper-water "middle" limestones exhibit significantly larger surface-to-volume ratios than those from regressive "upper" limestones, and specimens with the smallest surface-to-volume ratios occur in shoaling deposits at or near the tops of regressive limestones. Shell shape does not vary predictably with depth of habitat. Rather, changes in surface-to-volume ratio were accomplished mainly by changes in size, with larger shells always characterized by smaller ratios. The observed trend is significantly nonrandom with respect to depth of habitat (p = 0.012). The trend is not likely the result of hydrodynamic adaptation, postmortem size sorting or size decrease along a bottom oxygen gradient. It most likely reflects geometric optimization for photosymbiosis. Copyright © 2012 SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

Gross C.,University of Bath | Walke P.,University of Bath | Pritchett I.,Lime Technology
Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers: Construction Materials | Year: 2013

Hemp-lime is an insulating low carbon dioxide material that is produced from sustainable natural resources. The use of hemp-lime within the construction industry is a relatively recent development. Currently within the UK hemp-lime is used to form solid wall insulation in conjunction with structural timber studwork. Current design practice generally assumes that the hemp-lime does not contribute towards the structural capacity of the wall. This paper details research that has been undertaken to establish the compressive load enhancement provided to timber studs by encasement in hemp-lime. Laboratory testing was carried out on timber studs with and without hemp-lime and the results compared. It was found that the hemp-lime significantly increases the compressive capacity of the studs and prevents buckling from occurring.

Andersen G.,Lime Technology
Power Engineering (Barrington, Illinois) | Year: 2011

Southern Co. is aimed to explore a non-traditional design strategy to eliminate the cost of the entire limestone receiving, storage, and wet milling facilities at several plants within the same geographic region and replace them with pre-ground limestone from an outside supplier. As part of their design process, the company conducted an analysis to determine the most economic method of supplying limestone slurry to these scrubbers. Mississippi Lime Co. and its Reagent Technology Services (RTS) Division assured Southern that all the concerns regarding milling operations will be successfully addressed. In 2008 RTS began construction of the Mobile Regional Grinding Facility that are built at an elevation of 14.6 feet above sea level. Intended and unintended benefits associated with a nontraditional pulverized limestone supply are capital savings, reduced parasitic power consumption, and equal or greater reliability.

Calcium hydroxide particles with very high reactivity exhibiting an X-ray diffraction line at d=0.49 nm obtained by the Debye-Scherrer powder method with an intensity below 50% of the intensity of a traditional hydrated lime with a specific surface area of 15.8 m^(2)/g.

PubMed | University Utrecht, University of Calgary, University of Toronto, Harvard University and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Biosensors & bioelectronics | Year: 2017

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived vesicles present in body fluids that play an essential role in various cellular processes, such as intercellular communication, inflammation, cellular homeostasis, survival, transport, and regeneration. Their isolation and analysis from body fluids have a great clinical potential to provide information on a variety of disease states such as cancer, cardiovascular complications and inflammatory disorders. Despite increasing scientific and clinical interest in this field, there are still no standardized procedures available for the purification, detection, and characterization of EVs. Advances in microfluidics allow for chemical sampling with increasingly high spatial resolution and under precise manipulation down to single molecule level. In this review, our objective is to give a brief overview on the working principle and examples of the isolation and detection methods with the potential to be used for extracellular vesicles. This review will also highlight the integrated on-chip systems for isolation and characterization of EVs.

Lime Technology | Date: 2011-08-23

Sustainable bio-composite construction material made of hemp shivs, binder, and water, namely, building insulation.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: EeB.NMP.2013-2 | Award Amount: 9.38M | Year: 2013

The ECO-SEE project aims to develop new eco-materials and components for the purpose of creating both healthier and more energy efficient buildings. We will create and symbiotically use natural eco-materials for healthier indoor environments through hygrothermal (heat and moisture) regulation and the removal airborne contaminants through both chemical capture and photocatalysis. Our objectives include advancing state of the art in the technology and application of multifunctional bio-based insulation materials, vapour permeable and hygrothermal and moisture buffering finishes, together with wood panel products, to create both internal partition and external highly insulated wall panels. Novel chemical treatments and processes will be used to enhance volatile organic compound capture capacity of materials. We will also develop highly novel photocatalytic coatings using nanoparticle technology, which will be suitable for use in interior spaces and compatible with lime and wooden surfaces. Novel material development will be completed in partnership with world-class expert organisations in indoor environmental quality. We will also create a new holistic modelling framework that combines air quality, hygrothermal comfort and acoustic quality for the well-being of building users. We will take new products through to proof of concept development with prototype manufacture, large scale tests and pilot studies. We will deliver products with at least 15% lower embodied energy, at least 20% longer life, and, for at least 20% lower build costs. Our consortium brings together a multi-disciplinary team of world-class researchers from universities and research organisations with a number of large enterprises and innovative SMEs, whose combined expertise and capacity will lead commercial development and exploitation of our products. We will engage with stakeholders, including Public and Health authorities and standards committees, and deliver training and technical guidance.

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