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Ding H.X.,Pharmacodia Beijing Co. | Leverett C.A.,Pfizer | Kyne R.E.,Pfizer | Liu K.K.-C.,Lilly China Research and Development Center | And 3 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2015

New drugs introduced to the market every year represent privileged structures for particular biological targets. These new chemical entities (NCEs) provide insight into molecular recognition and also serve as leads for designing future new drugs. This annual review covers the synthesis of twenty-four NCEs that were approved for the first time in 2013 and two 2012 drugs which were not covered during the previous edition of this review. ©2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Fei Q.,Novartis | Yang X.,Tongji University | Jiang H.,Novartis | Wang Q.,Tongji University | And 10 more authors.
Genome Research | Year: 2015

SETDB1, a histone methyltransferase responsible for methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9), is involved in maintenance of embryonic stem (ES) cells and early embryonic development of the mouse. However, how SETDB1 regulates gene expression during development is largely unknown. Here, we characterized genome-wide SETDB1 binding and H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) profiles in mouse ES cells and uncovered two distinct classes of SETDB1 binding sites, termed solo and ensemble peaks. The solo peaks were devoid of H3K9me3 and enriched near developmental regulators while the ensemble peaks were associated with H3K9me3. A subset of the SETDB1 solo peaks, particularly those near neural development-related genes, was found to be associated with Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) as well as PRC2-interacting proteins JARID2 and MTF2. Genetic deletion of Setdb1 reduced EZH2 binding as well as histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27) trimethylation level at SETDB1 solo peaks and facilitated neural differentiation. Furthermore, we found that H3K27me3 inhibits SETDB1 methyltransferase activity. The currently identified reciprocal action between SETDB1 and PRC2 reveals a novel mechanism underlying ES cell pluripotency and differentiation regulation. © 2015 Fei et al. Source


Talchai C.,Columbia University | Talchai C.,Chulalongkorn University | Xuan S.,Columbia University | Lin H.V.,Lilly China Research and Development Center | And 2 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2012

Diabetes is associated with β cell failure. But it remains unclear whether the latter results from reduced β cell number or function. FoxO1 integrates β cell proliferation with adaptive β cell function. We interrogated the contribution of these two processes to β cell dysfunction, using mice lacking FoxO1 in β cells. FoxO1 ablation caused hyperglycemia with reduced β cell mass following physiologic stress, such as multiparity and aging. Surprisingly, lineage-tracing experiments demonstrated that loss of β cell mass was due to β cell dedifferentiation, not death. Dedifferentiated β cells reverted to progenitor-like cells expressing Neurogenin3, Oct4, Nanog, and L-Myc. A subset of FoxO1-deficient β cells adopted the α cell fate, resulting in hyperglucagonemia. Strikingly, we identify the same sequence of events as a feature of different models of murine diabetes. We propose that dedifferentiation trumps endocrine cell death in the natural history of β cell failure and suggest that treatment of β cell dysfunction should restore differentiation, rather than promoting β cell replication. PaperFlick: © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Lin H.V.,Merck And Co. | Lin H.V.,Lilly China Research and Development Center | Chen D.,Merck And Co. | Shen Z.,Merck And Co. | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1) is a potential therapeutic target for treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. However, the degree of DGAT1 inhibition required for metabolic benefits is unclear. Here we show that partial DGAT1 deficiency in mice suppressed postprandial triglyceridemia, led to elevations in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) only following meals with very high lipid content, and did not protect from diet-induced obesity. Maximal DGAT1 inhibition led to enhanced GLP-1 and PYY secretion following meals with physiologically relevant lipid content. Finally, combination of DGAT1 inhibition with dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibition led to further enhancements in active GLP-1 in mice and dogs. The current study suggests that targeting DGAT1 to enhance postprandial gut hormone secretion requires maximal inhibition, and suggests combination with DPP-4i as a potential strategy to develop DGAT1 inhibitors for treatment of metabolic diseases. © 2013 Lin et al. Source


Ding H.X.,PharmaPhase Co. | Leverett C.A.,Pfizer | Kyne R.E.,Pfizer | Liu K.K.-C.,Lilly China Research and Development Center | And 3 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

New drugs introduced to the market every year represent a privileged structure for a particular biological target. These new chemical entities (NCEs) provide insights into molecular recognition and also serve as leads for designing future new drugs. This review covers the synthesis of twenty-six NCEs that were launched or approved worldwide in 2012 and two additional drugs which were launched at the end of 2011. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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