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Cotsapas C.,Cambridge Broad Institute | Cotsapas C.,Harvard University | Cotsapas C.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Prokunina-Olsson L.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 12 more authors.
Diabetologia | Year: 2010

Aims/hypothesis: Genetic mapping has identified over 20 loci contributing to genetic risk of type 2 diabetes. The next step is to identify the genes and mechanisms regulating the contributions of genetic risk to disease. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of age, height, weight and risk alleles on expression of candidate genes in diabetes-associated regions in three relevant human tissues. Methods: We measured transcript abundance for WFS1, KCNJ11, TCF2 (also known as HNF1B), PPARG, HHEX, IDE, CDKAL1, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, IGF2BP2, SLC30A8 and TCF7L2 by quantitative RT-PCR in human pancreas (n=50), colon (n=195) and liver (n=50). Tissue samples were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with type 2 diabetes. The effects of age, height, weight, tissue and SNP on RNA expression were tested by linear modelling. Results: Expression of all genes exhibited tissue bias. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the findings for HHEX, IDE and SLC30A8, which showed strongest tissue-specific mRNA expression bias. Neither age, height nor weight were associated with gene expression. We found no evidence that type 2 diabetes-associated SNPs affect neighbouring gene expression (cis-expression quantitative trait loci) in colon, pancreas and liver. Conclusions/ interpretation: This study provides new evidence that tissue-type, but not age, height, weight or SNPs in or near candidate genes associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes are strong contributors to differential gene expression in the genes and tissues examined. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Adhikari N.,Lillehei Heart Institute | Basi D.L.,Developmental Surgical Science | Carlson M.,Lillehei Heart Institute | Mariash A.,Lillehei Heart Institute | And 7 more authors.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology | Year: 2011

Objective- The goal of this study was to test the contributing role of increasing glucose uptake in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vascular complications and disease. Methods and results- A murine genetic model was established in which glucose trasporter 1 (GLUT1), the non-insulin-dependent glucose transporter protein, was overexpressed in smooth muscle using the sm22α promoter. Overexpression of GLUT1 in smooth muscle led to significant increases in glucose uptake (n=3, P<0.0001) as measured using radiolabeled 2-deoxyglucose. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids were unchanged. Contractility in aortic ring segments was decreased in sm22α-GLUT1 mice (n=10, P<0.04). In response to vascular injury, sm22α-GLUT1 mice exhibited a proinflammatory phenotype, including a significant increase in the percentage of neutrophils in the lesion (n=4, P<0.04) and an increase in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) immunofluorescence. Circulating haptoglobin and glutathione/total glutathione were significantly higher in the sm22α-GLUT1 mice postinjury compared with controls (n=4, P<0.05), suggesting increased flux through the pentose phosphate pathway. sm22α-GLUT1 mice exhibited significant medial hypertrophy following injury that was associated with a significant increase in the percentage of VSMCs in the media staining positive for nuclear phosphoSMAD2/3 (n=4, P<0.003). Conclusion- In summary, these findings suggest that increased glucose uptake in VSMCs impairs vascular contractility and accelerates a proinflammatory, neutrophil-rich lesion in response to injury, as well as medial hypertrophy, which is associated with enhanced transforming growth factor-β activity. © 2011 American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Source

Lu Z.,Minneapolis | Lu Z.,Center for Vascular Biology | Xu X.,Minneapolis | Xu X.,Center for Vascular Biology | And 19 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2010

Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibition has been shown to exert profound beneficial effects in the failing heart, suggesting a significant role for PDE5 in the development of congestive heart failure (CHF). The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress causes increased PDE5 expression in cardiac myocytes and that increased PDE5 contributes to the development of CHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Myocardial PDE5 expression and cellular distribution were determined in left ventricular samples from patients with end-stage CHF and normal donors and from mice after transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced CHF. Compared with donor human hearts, myocardial PDE5 protein was increased ≥4.5-fold in CHF samples, and the increase of myocardial PDE5 expression was significantly correlated with myocardial oxidative stress markers 3′-nitrotyrosine or 4-hydroxynonenal expression (P<0.05). Histological examination demonstrated that PDE5 was mainly expressed in vascular smooth muscle in normal donor hearts, but its expression was increased in both cardiac myocytes and vascular smooth muscle of CHF hearts. Myocardial PDE5 protein content and activity also increased in mice after TAC-induced CHF (P<0.05). When the superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic M40401 was administered to attenuate oxidative stress, the increased PDE5 protein and activity caused by TAC was blunted, and the hearts were protected against left ventricular hypertrophy and CHF. Conversely, increased myocardial oxidative stress in superoxide dismutase 3 knockout mice caused a greater increase of PDE5 expression and CHF after TAC. In addition, administration of sildenafil to inhibit PDE5 attenuated TAC-induced myocardial oxidative stress, PDE5 expression, and CHF. CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial oxidative stress increases PDE5 expression in the failing heart. Reducing oxidative stress by treatment with M40401 attenuated cardiomyocyte PDE5 expression. This and selective inhibition of PDE5 protected the heart against pressure overload-induced left ventricular hypertrophy and CHF. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Urick A.K.,University of Minnesota | Hawk L.M.L.,University of Minnesota | Cassel M.K.,University of Minnesota | Mishra N.K.,University of Minnesota | And 6 more authors.
ACS Chemical Biology | Year: 2015

Bromodomain-containing protein dysregulation is linked to cancer, diabetes, and inflammation. Selective inhibition of bromodomain function is a newly proposed therapeutic strategy. We describe a 19F NMR dual screening method for small molecule discovery using fluorinated tryptophan resonances on two bromodomain-containing proteins. The chemical shift dispersion of 19F resonances within fluorine-labeled proteins enables the simultaneous analysis of two fluorinated bromodomains by NMR. A library of 229 small molecules was screened against the first bromodomain of Brd4 and the BPTF bromodomain. We report the first small molecule selective for BPTF over Brd4, termed AU1. The Kd = 2.8 for AU1, which is active in a cell-based reporter assay. No binding is detected with Brd4. Three new Brd4 inhibitors with submicromolar affinity were also discovered. Brd4 hits were validated in a thermal stability assay and potency determined via fluorescence anisotropy. The speed, ease of interpretation, and low protein concentration needed for protein-observed 19F NMR experiments in a multiprotein format offers a new method to discover and characterize selective ligands for bromodomain-containing proteins. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

Caprioli A.,Center for Developmental Biology | Koyano-Nakagawa N.,University of Minnesota | Koyano-Nakagawa N.,Lillehei Heart Institute | Iacovino M.,University of Minnesota | And 6 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2011

Background-: Recent studies suggest that the hematopoietic and cardiac lineages have close ontogenic origins, and that an early mesodermal cell population has the potential to differentiate into both lineages. Studies also suggest that specification of these lineages is inversely regulated. However, the transcriptional networks that govern the cell fate specification of these progenitors are incompletely defined. Methods and results-: Here, we show that Nkx2-5 regulates the hematopoietic/erythroid fate of the mesoderm precursors early during cardiac morphogenesis. Using transgenic technologies to isolate Nkx2-5 expressing cells, we observed an induction of the erythroid molecular program, including Gata1, in the Nkx2-5-null embryos. We further observed that overexpression of Nkx2-5 with an Nkx2-5-inducible embryonic stem cell system significantly repressed Gata1 gene expression and suppressed the hematopoietic/erythroid potential, but not the endothelial potential, of the embryonic stem cells. This suppression was cell-autonomous, and was partially rescued by overexpressing Gata1. In addition, we demonstrated that Nkx2-5 binds to the Gata1 gene enhancer and represses the transcriptional activity of the Gata1 gene. Conclusions-: Our results demonstrate that the hematopoietic/ erythroid cell fate is suppressed via Nkx2-5 during mesodermal fate determination, and that the Gata1 gene is one of the targets that are suppressed by Nkx2-5. © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

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