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Steffensen G.K.,Hospital Lillebaelt | Ostergaard O.,Roskilde Hospital
Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology | Year: 2011

Objective. Subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of erythropoietin (EPO) is recommended over the intravenous (i.v.) route to reduce doses and costs. Optimal iron treatment is important for the optimal EPO effect. This study investigated whether the haemoglobin (Hb) level of a single patient could be preserved with the same dose of EPO given i.v. as given s.c. Material and methods. One-hundred and forty-five haemodialysis patients with the same weekly EPO dose s.c. for 3 months and a stable Hb (maximum fluctuation of 1 mmol/l) were randomized in a crossover study to group A (4 months i.v. then 4 months s.c. EPO) or group B (4 months s.c. then 4 months i.v. EPO, with unchanged EPO dose). Ferritin had to be 300-800 μg/l or transferrin saturation ≥20%. Patients with a fall in Hb >1 mmol/l were withdrawn. Results. Ferritin and transferrin saturation remained within the target range, and mean Hb in the range of 1 mmol/l. Mean EPO doses were unchanged in both groups, and no difference was found between the dropouts due to Hb fall >1 mmol/l in the i.v. and s.c. groups during the first period of the trial. Conclusion. In iron-replete haemodialysis patients the same EPO dose given intravenously is just as effective as given subcutaneously. © 2011 Informa Healthcare.


Boyd P.A.,University of Oxford | Loane M.,University of Ulster | Garne E.,Hospital Lillebaelt | Khoshnood B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2011

This study aims to assess prevalence and pregnancy outcome for sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs) diagnosed prenatally or in the first year of life. Data held by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) database on SCT cases delivered 2000-2005 from 19 population-based registries in 11 European countries covering 2.5 million births were analysed. Cases included were livebirths diagnosed to 1 year of age, fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestation and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (TOPFA). In all, 465 cases of SCT were diagnosed between 2000 and 2005, a prevalence of 1.88 per 10,000 births (95% CI 1.71-2.06). Prevalence of XXX, XXY and XYY were 0.54 (95% CI 0.46-0.64), 1.04 (95% CI 0.92-1.17) and 0.30 (95% CI 0.24-0.38), respectively. In all, 415 (89%) were prenatally diagnosed and 151 (36%) of these resulted in TOPFA. There was wide country variation in prevalence (0.19-5.36 per 1000), proportion prenatally diagnosed (50-100%) and proportion of prenatally diagnosed resulting in TOPFA (13-67%). Prevalence of prenatally diagnosed cases was higher in countries with high prenatal detection rates of Down syndrome. The EUROCAT prevalence rate for SCTs diagnosed prenatally or up to 1 year of age represents 12% of the prevalence expected from cytogenetic studies of newborn babies, as the majority of cases are never diagnosed or are diagnosed later in life. There is a wide variation between European countries in prevalence, prenatal detection and TOPFA proportions, related to differences in screening policies as well as organizational and cultural factors. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Dolk H.,University of Ulster | Loane M.,University of Ulster | Garne E.,Hospital Lillebaelt
Circulation | Year: 2011

Background- This study determines the prevalence of Congenital Heart Defects (CHD), diagnosed prenatally or in infancy, and fetal and perinatal mortality associated with CHD in Europe. Methods and Results- Data were extracted from the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies central database for 29 population-based congenital anomaly registries in 16 European countries covering 3.3 million births during the period 2000 to 2005. CHD cases (n=26 598) comprised live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestation, and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (TOPFA). The average total prevalence of CHD was 8.0 per 1000 births, and live birth prevalence was 7.2 per 1000 births, varying between countries. The total prevalence of nonchromosomal CHD was 7.0 per 1000 births, of which 3.6% were perinatal deaths, 20% prenatally diagnosed, and 5.6% TOPFA. Severe nonchromosomal CHD (ie, excluding ventricular septal defects, atrial septal defects, and pulmonary valve stenosis) occurred in 2.0 per 1000 births, of which 8.1% were perinatal deaths, 40% were prenatally diagnosed, and 14% were TOPFA (TOPFA range between countries 0% to 32%). Live-born CHD associated with Down syndrome occurred in 0.5 per 1000 births, with >4-fold variation between countries. Conclusion- Annually in the European Union, we estimate 36 000 children are live born with CHD and 3000 who are diagnosed with CHD die as a TOFPA, late fetal death, or early neonatal death. Investing in primary prevention and pathogenetic research is essential to reduce this burden, as well as continuing to improve cardiac services from in utero to adulthood. Copyright © 2011 American Heart Association. All rights reserved.


Arnbak B.,Hospital Lillebaelt | Arnbak B.,University of Southern Denmark | Leboeuf-Yde C.,Hospital Lillebaelt | Leboeuf-Yde C.,University of Southern Denmark | And 2 more authors.
Arthritis Research and Therapy | Year: 2012

Introduction: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proven capable of showing inflammatory and structural changes in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) and has become widely used in the diagnosis of SpA. Despite this, no systematic reviews evaluate the diagnostic utility of MRI for SpA. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review was to determine the evidence for the utility of MRI in the clinical diagnosis of SpA. The aims were to identify which MRI findings are associated with the diagnosis of SpA and to quantify this association.Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE were electronically searched. Inclusion criteria were cross-sectional or longitudinal case-control or cohort MRI studies. The studies required a group with either SpA or inflammatory back pain (IBP) and a non-case group without SpA or IBP. Each group required a minimum of 20 participants. The included articles had to report results containing raw numbers suitable for the construction of two-by-two tables or report results by sensitivity and specificity for cross-sectional studies or odds ratios, relative risk ratios, or likelihood ratios for longitudinal studies. Method quality was assessed by using criteria based on the QUADAS tool.Results: In total, 2,395 articles were identified in MEDLINE and EMBASE before November 2011. All articles were reviewed by title and abstract. Seventy-seven articles were reviewed by full text, and 10 met the inclusion criteria. Two were considered of high quality: one evaluated the sacroiliac joints, and the other, the spine. Because of the small number of high-quality studies, a meta-analysis was not performed. The two high-quality studies found a positive association between MRI findings (bone marrow edema, erosions, fat infiltrations, global assessment of sacroiliitis, and ankylosis) and the diagnosis of IBP and SpA.Conclusion: In this review, several MRI findings were found to be associated with SpA. However, because of the small number of high-quality studies, the evidence for the utility of MRI in the diagnosis of SpA must be considered limited. Therefore, caution should be taken to ensure that inflammatory and structural MRI findings are not interpreted as being more specific for SpA than is supported by research. © 2012 Arnbak et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Knudsen T.M.,Copenhagen University | Hansen A.V.,Copenhagen University | Hansen A.V.,Hospital Lillebaelt | Garne E.,Hospital Lillebaelt | Andersen A.-M.N.,Copenhagen University
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2014

Background: Previous studies suggest a possible association between maternal use of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during early pregnancy and congenital heart defects (CHD). The purpose of this study was to verify this association by using validated data from the Danish EUROCAT Register, and secondary, to investigate whether the risk differs between various socioeconomic groups.Methods: We conducted a cohort study based on Danish administrative register data linked with the Danish EUROCAT Register, which includes all CHD diagnosed in live births, fetal deaths and in pregnancies terminated due to congenital anomalies. The study population consisted of all registered pregnancies (n = 72,280) in Funen, Denmark in the period 1995-2008. SSRI-use was assessed using The Danish National Prescription Registry, information on marital status, maternal educational level, income, and country of origin from Statistics Denmark was used as indicators of socioeconomic situation, and the CHD were studied in subgroups defined by EUROCAT. Logistic Regression was used to investigate the association between redeemed prescriptions for SSRIs and CHD.Results: The risk of severe CHD in the offspring of the 845 pregnant women who used SSRIs during first trimester increased four times (AOR 4.03 (95% CI 1.75-9.26)). We found no increased risk of septal defects. Socioeconomic position did not modify the association between maternal SSRI-use during pregnancy and severe CHD.Conclusion: This study, which is based on data with high case ascertainment, suggests that maternal use of SSRIs during first trimester increases the risk of severe CHD, but does not support findings from previous studies, based on administrative register data, regarding an increased risk of septal defects. The study was unable to document an interaction between socioeconomic status and maternal SSRI-use on the risk of severe CHD. © 2014 Knudsen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Jensen R.K.,Hospital Lillebaelt | Jensen R.K.,University of Southern Denmark | Leboeuf-Yde C.,Hospital Lillebaelt | Leboeuf-Yde C.,University of Southern Denmark
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders | Year: 2011

Background: Modic changes (MCs) have been identified as a diagnostic subgroup associated with low back pain (LBP). The aetiology of MCs is still unknown and there is no effective treatment available. If MCs constitute a specific subgroup of LBP, it seems reasonable to expect different effects from different treatments. The objective of this systematic critical literature review was therefore to investigate if there is evidence in the literature that the presence of MCs at baseline is associated with a favourable outcome depending on the treatment provided for LBP. Methods. The databases MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for relevant articles from 1984 to December 2010. A checklist including items related to the research questions and quality of the articles was used for data extraction and quality assessment. Of the 1650 articles found, five (six studies) were included in this review but because the studies were so heterogeneous, the results have been reported separately for each study. Results: The treatments studied were: lumbar epidural steroid injections (n = 1), lumbar intradiscal steroid injections (n = 2), lumbar disc replacement (n = 1), fusion surgery (n = 1) and exercise therapy (n = 1). One of the two studies investigating treatment with intradiscal steroid injections and the study investigating fusion surgery reported that MCs were positively associated with the outcomes of pain and disability. The other study on lumbar intradiscal steroid injections and the study on lumbar epidural steroid injections reported mixed results, whereas the study on lumbar disc replacement and the study on exercise therapy reported that MCs were not associated with the outcomes of pain and disability. Conclusions: The available studies on the topic were too few and too heterogeneous to reach a definitive conclusion and it is therefore still unclear if MCs may be of clinical importance when guiding or prescribing the 'right' treatment for a patient with LBP. © 2011 Jensen and Leboeuf-Yde; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Fejer R.,Hospital Lillebaelt | Ruhe A.,Private Practice
Chiropractic and Manual Therapies | Year: 2012

Background: The proportion of older people will be tripled by the year 2050. In addition, the incidence of chronic musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions will also increase among the elderly people. Thus, in order to prepare for future health care demands, the magnitude and impact of MSK conditions from this growing population is needed. The objective of this literature review is to determine the current prevalence of MSK disorders in the elderly population.Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in Pubmed on articles in English, published between January 2000 and July 2011. Studies from developed countries with prevalence estimates on elderly people (60+) on the following MSK conditions were included: Non-specific extremity pain, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and back pain. The included articles were extracted for information and assessed for risk of bias.Results: A total of 85 articles were included with 173 different prevalence estimates. Musculoskeletal disorders are common in the elderly population, but due to heterogeneity of the studies, no general estimate on the prevalence of MSK can be determined. Women report more often MSK pain than men. Overall, prevalence estimates either remain fairly constant or increase slightly with increasing age, but with a tendency to decrease in the oldest (80+) people.Conclusions: Musculoskeletal disorders remain prevalent in the elderly population. Given the increasing proportion of elderly population in the world population and the burden of MSK diseases among the elderly people, efforts must be made to maintain their functional capacity for as long as possible through optimal primary and secondary health care. © 2012 Fejer and Ruhe; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Kent P.,Hospital Lillebaelt | Kent P.,University of Southern Denmark | Lauridsen H.H.,University of Southern Denmark
Spine | Year: 2011

Study Design. Analysis of Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) and Oswestry Disability Index (Oswestry) responses. Objective. To determine the prevalence of unanswered questions on the RMDQ23 (23-item RMDQ version) and Oswestry questionnaires. To determine whether managing RMDQ23 missing data using proportional recalculation is more accurate than simply ignoring missing data. Summary of Background Data. It is likely that the most common method for calculating an RMDQ sum score is to simply ignore any unanswered questions. In contrast, the raw sum score on the Oswestry is converted to a 0 to 100 scale, with the advantage of allowing missing data to be accommodated by proportional recalculation. Methods. The prevalence of unanswered RMDQ23 questions was measured in a research project and a routine care setting. The accuracy of the RMDQ23 proportional recalculation method was measured using 311 fully completed RMDQ23 and matching Oswestry questionnaire sets. Raw sum scores were calculated, and questions systematically dropped. At each stage, sum scores were converted to a score on a 0 to 100 scale and the error calculated. Wilcoxon Tests were used to compare the magnitude of the error scores. Results. The prevalence of people who did not answer one or more questions was 29.5% (RMDQ23) in routine care, and 13.9% (Oswestry) and 20.3% (RMDQ23) in a research project. Proportional recalculation was a more accurate method to calculate RMDQ sum scores than simply ignoring missing data, when two or more questions were unanswered. Conclusion. Because of less error when missing data are present, the most accurate method for expressing RMDQ sum scores collected using Yes/No answers is conversion to a 0 to 100 scale. This conversion method is (a) if all questions are answered or only one question is unanswered, multiply the raw sum score by 100 divided by the total number of questions, and (b) if two or more questions are unanswered, multiply the raw sum score by 100 divided by the number of answered questions. © 2011, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Nissen K.B.,University of Southern Denmark | Udesen A.,University of Southern Denmark | Garne E.,Hospital Lillebaelt
Congenital Anomalies | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypospadias over 24 years in a Danish population and to describe the relation to birthweight and associated major congenital anomalies. It is a population-based study of all cases (live births, fetal deaths and elective terminations of pregnancy) with hypospadias born in the period 1986-2009 in Funen County and reported to the EUROCAT registry of congenital anomalies. Cases were included only if surgery for hypospadias was performed. 223 cases of hypospadias were registered during the period 1986-2009 with an overall prevalence of 16.9 per 10000 births. The prevalence was significantly higher in 2000-2009 compared to 1986-1999 (P<0.001). We found a three times higher occurrence of VLBW (very low birthweight) infants among cases with hypospadias. Infants with isolated hypospadias were more likely to have mild hypospadias (68%) while cases with associated major congenital anomalies were less likely to have mild hypospadias (42%) (P<0.05). Hypospadias was associated with VLBW and the severity of the defect was related to the presence of major congenital anomalies. The prevalence of hypospadias has increased during the study period. The relation to VLBW could indicate a causal relationship for hypospadias or a shared pathogenic factor. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.


Bonnema S.J.,University of Southern Denmark | Fast So.,Hospital Lillebaelt | Hegedus L.,University of Southern Denmark
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

For treatment of benign nodular goitre the choice usually stands between surgery and 131I therapy. 131I therapy, used for 30 years for this condition, leads to a goitre volume reduction of 35-50% within 1-2 years. However, this treatment has limited efficacy if the thyroid 131I uptake is low or if the goitre is large. Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH)-stimulated 131I therapy significantly improves goitre reduction, as compared with conventional 131I therapy without pre-stimulation, and adverse effects are few with rhTSH doses of 0.1 mg or lower. RhTSH-stimulated 131I therapy reduces the need for additional therapy due to insufficient goitre reduction, but the price is a higher rate of hypothyroidism. Another approach with rhTSH-stimulation is to reduce the administered 131I activity by a factor that equals the increase in the thyroid 131I uptake. Using this approach, radiation exposure is considerably reduced while the goitre reduction is similar to that obtained with conventional 131I therapy. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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