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Lille, France

The Université Lille 1 is a French university located on a dedicated main campus in Villeneuve d'Ascq with 20,000 full-time students plus 14,500 students in continuing education . 1,310 permanent faculty members plus 1,200 staff and around 140 CNRS researchers work there in the different University Lille 1 institutes and 43 research labs. University Lille 1 is a member of the European Doctoral College Lille-Nord-Pas de Calais, which produces 400 doctorate dissertations every year. The university is ranked in the world top 200 universities in mathematics by the Shanghai ranking.University Lille 1 was established in 1854 in Lille, although its academic roots extend back to 1562. It later moved to Villeneuve d'Ascq in 1967. The University focuses on science and technology. Law, business management and medical fields are taught in the independent campus of Université de Lille II, while literature and social science are taught as part of the independent campus of Université de Lille III. Altogether, the three university campuses in Lille include more than 90,000 students and are the main parts of the Université Lille Nord de France. Wikipedia.

Bergelson J.,University of Chicago | Roux F.,Lille University of Science and Technology
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2010

A major challenge in evolutionary biology and plant breeding is to identify the genetic basis of complex quantitative traits, including those that contribute to adaptive variation. Here we review the development of new methods and resources to fine-map intraspecific genetic variation that underlies natural phenotypic variation in plants. In particular, the analysis of 107 quantitative traits reported in the first genome-wide association mapping study in Arabidopsis thaliana sets the stage for an exciting time in our understanding of plant adaptation. We also argue for the need to place phenotypeĝ€ "genotype association studies in an ecological context if one is to predict the evolutionary trajectories of plant species. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Legrand D.,Lille University of Science and Technology
Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2012

Lactoferrin (Lf) belongs to the family of antimicrobial molecules that constitute the principal defense line of nonvertebrate organisms. In human immunity, their roles are considerably extended, and actually exceed mere direct antimicrobial properties. As a result, Lf is involved in both innate and adaptive immunities where its modulating effects not only help the host fight against microbes but also protect the host against harmful effects of inflammation. Such beneficial effects have been noticed in studies using dietary Lf, without the experimenters always explaining the exact modes of action of Lf. Effects on mucosal and systemic immunities are indeed often observed, which make the roles of Lf tricky to decipher. It is now known that the immunomodulatory properties of Lf are due to its ability to interact with numerous cellular and molecular targets. At the cellular level, Lf modulates the migration, maturation, and functions of immune cells. At the molecular level, in addition to iron binding, interactions of Lf with a plethora of compounds, either soluble or cell-surface molecules, account for its modulatory properties. This paper reviews our current understanding of the mechanisms that explain the regulatory properties of Lf in immune and inflammatory processes. © 2011 Published by NRC Research Press.

Brachi B.,Lille University of Science and Technology
PLoS genetics | Year: 2010

Flowering time is a key life-history trait in the plant life cycle. Most studies to unravel the genetics of flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana have been performed under greenhouse conditions. Here, we describe a study about the genetics of flowering time that differs from previous studies in two important ways: first, we measure flowering time in a more complex and ecologically realistic environment; and, second, we combine the advantages of genome-wide association (GWA) and traditional linkage (QTL) mapping. Our experiments involved phenotyping nearly 20,000 plants over 2 winters under field conditions, including 184 worldwide natural accessions genotyped for 216,509 SNPs and 4,366 RILs derived from 13 independent crosses chosen to maximize genetic and phenotypic diversity. Based on a photothermal time model, the flowering time variation scored in our field experiment was poorly correlated with the flowering time variation previously obtained under greenhouse conditions, reinforcing previous demonstrations of the importance of genotype by environment interactions in A. thaliana and the need to study adaptive variation under natural conditions. The use of 4,366 RILs provides great power for dissecting the genetic architecture of flowering time in A. thaliana under our specific field conditions. We describe more than 60 additive QTLs, all with relatively small to medium effects and organized in 5 major clusters. We show that QTL mapping increases our power to distinguish true from false associations in GWA mapping. QTL mapping also permits the identification of false negatives, that is, causative SNPs that are lost when applying GWA methods that control for population structure. Major genes underpinning flowering time in the greenhouse were not associated with flowering time in this study. Instead, we found a prevalence of genes involved in the regulation of the plant circadian clock. Furthermore, we identified new genomic regions lacking obvious candidate genes.

Vuillaume D.,Lille University of Science and Technology
Proceedings of the IEEE | Year: 2010

Molecular electronics is envisioned as a promising candidate for the nanoelectronics of the future. More than a possible answer to ultimate miniaturization problem in nanoelectronics, molecular electronics is foreseen as a possible way to assemble a large numbers of nanoscale objects (molecules, nanoparticules, nanotubes, and nanowires) to form new devices and circuit architectures. It is also an interesting approach to significantly reduce the fabrication costs, as well as the energetic costs of computation, compared to usual semiconductor technologies. Moreover, molecular electronics is a field with a large spectrum of investigations: from quantum objects for testing new paradigms, to hybrid molecular-silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices. However, problems remain to be solved (e.g., a better control of the molecule-electrode interfaces, improvements of the reproducibility and reliability, etc.). © 2006 IEEE.

Clement N.,Lille University of Science and Technology
Nature communications | Year: 2010

Flicker or 1/f noise in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) has been identified as the main source of noise at low frequency. It often originates from an ensemble of a huge number of charges becoming trapped and de-trapped. However, as a deviation from the well-known model of 1/f noise is observed for nanoscale MOSFETs, a new model is required. Here, we report the observation of one-by-one trap activation controlled by the gate voltage in a nanowire MOSFET and propose a new low-frequency-noise theory for nanoscale FETs. We show that the Coulomb repulsion between electronically charged trap sites prevents the activation of several traps simultaneously. This effect induces a noise reduction of more than one order of magnitude. It decreases when the electron density in the channel is increased due to the electrical screening of traps. These findings are technologically useful for any FET with a short and narrow channel.

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