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Seals form one of the most abundant corpora of iconography from the Middle Ages. For the art historian, these images offer the advantage of having been elaborated by the people who would use them, not only to express their legal personality but also, and perhaps especially, to mark their position in a highly hierarchical society. As cities do not constitute an identifiable group, they are excused from this particular identifying obligation. From the end of the twelfth century, when they begin adopting seals, cities choose from a variety of iconographie repertories: shields, representations of the mayor on horseback, architectural elements, or a patron saint. Within this production, regulated by strongly typological principles, the seal of the city of Boulogne-sur-Mer is a hapax. It is one of the rare, if not the only seal to display what is a quite atypical narrative, profane image, drawn from courtly literature. In choosing to represent on two successive seals a key episode from the Geste du Chevalier au cygne, the city of Boulogne summons up, at the end of the thirteenth century, the memory of its prestigious origins in a politically troubled context and, a century later, it again exploits the legend as a way of celebrating its new prince: Jean de Berry. Source

Stapleton A.,University Lille | Cintora A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | De Anda C.,Catholic University of Leuven | Fitzgibbon M.,University College Cork
IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline)

Modern technology is complex and interdisciplinary, used by many sectors, with an impact on everybody regardless of cultural background or societal status. Increasingly, debates are arising concerning the proper use of technology and the need for ethical considerations. The most recent technological developments concerning nanotechnology and related technologies have lead to a multitude of questions and concerns regarding the potential environmental, economic, and societal risks and how we manage these potential risks. This study seeks to explore the potential challenges of nanotechnology and the effects of the nanotechnological applications and developments in indirectly reinforcing global inequalities. © IFAC. Source

Apete G.K.,University Lille Northern France | Zitouni D.,Health Science University | Hubert H.,University Lille | Guinhouya B.C.,University F 59120 Loos Northern France
Perspectives in Public Health

Aims: This study examined the compliance of French children with physical activity (PA) guidelines, using objective assessments of PA.Methods: The study involved 252 children aged 9.9 ± 0.9 years, with mean height and weight of 1.39 ± 0.08 m and 35.8 ± 8.8 kg, respectively. Their usual PA was evaluated during a week using an Actigraph accelerometer.Results: The time spent in a moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) ranged from 142 ± 44 min.d-1 to 25 ± 18 min/day according to the cut-offs used. Boys were significantly more active than girls (p <.001). Overweight/obese children spent significantly less time in MVPA as determined with cut-off points at 3200 cpm (-26%) or 3600 cpm (-35%) (p <.01). Between 5% (8% of boys vs 1% of girls, p <.0001) and 9% (14% of boys vs 3% of girls, p <.0001) of children probably met the PA guidelines. No relationships were found with socioeconomic status.Conclusions: This high proportion of insufficiently active children (> 90%), together with the relatively high proportion of overweight children in this area, advocates a more aggressive PA promotion project, which should target al. children whatever their social origins. © Royal Society for Public Health 2012 SAGE Publications. Source

Hoang Pham T.,University of Mons | Ducro C.,University Lille | Marghem B.,Ministere Belge de la Justice | Reveillere C.,University of Tours
Annales Medico-Psychologiques

Actuarial risk assessment instruments (ARAI) have contributed to a methodological improvement for the evaluation inside the forensic system. One main effect was the reduction of false positive predictions. The ARAI present some advantages but also some important limits: (a) their assessment, leading to an overall score is not as easy as expected and requires appropriate training; (b) they include criteria identified from group statistics, the interpretation does not automatically apply to the evaluated individuals; (c) the specific personal characteristics not covered as individual behavior beyond the statistical probability; (d) the appreciation of the context of occurrence of the violent act is not sufficiently considered. These limits are still partially challenged in the latest generation of evaluative instruments called " structured clinical" that include both variables " static" linked to the past as well as variables " dynamic" related to the present and future. The paper discusses the limitations of the ARAI and formulates recommendations. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

Bekaert J.,University Lille | Masclet G.,Lille University of Science and Technology | Caron R.,University Paris Diderot
Annales Medico-Psychologiques

The review of international literature presented here aims at determining the presently available instruments, which measure resilience in adolescents who have been confronted with a traumatism. This research task, focusing on 30 years (1980-2010), was carried out starting from the numerical databases Psyinfo, Psyarticles, Pubmed and Medline, with various key words such as resilience, scale, measure, assessment, protective factors, teenager and adolescent. More than 250 articles have been selected. Among these articles, only five instruments have been identified as enabling to evaluate the characteristics of resilience in teenagers who have been confronted with a traumatism. For all of them, we reported the psychometric development as well as their limitations. This discussion analyses the relevance and the impact of these measuring instruments. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

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