Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer

Paris, France

Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer

Paris, France
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PubMed | Montpellier University, University dAuvergne, Center Leon Berard, Paris-Sorbonne University and 20 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin du cancer | Year: 2016

Breast cancer remains a potentially lethal disease, which requires aggressive treatments and is associated with long-term consequences. Its prognosis is linked to both tumor biology and burden at diagnosis. Although treatments have allowed important improvements in prognosis over the past 20years, breast cancer screening remains necessary. Mammographic screening allows earlier stage diagnoses and a decrease of breast cancer specific mortality. However, breast cancer screening modalities should be revised with the objective to address demonstrated limitations of mammographic screening (limited benefit, imperfect sensitivity and specificity, overdiagnoses, radiation-induced morbidity). Furthermore, both objective and perceived performances of screening procedures should be improved. Numerous large international efforts are ongoing, leading to scientific progresses that should have rapid clinical implications in this area. Among them is improvement of imaging techniques performance, development of real time diagnosis, and development of new non radiological screening techniques such as the search for circulating tumor DNA, development of biomarkers able to allow precise risk evaluation and stratified screening. As well, overtreatment is currently addressed by biomarker-based de-escalation clinical trials. These advances need to be associated with strong societal support, as well as major paradigm changes regarding the way health and cancer prevention is perceived by individuals.

Travert M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Travert M.,UniversiteParis Est | Huang Y.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Huang Y.,UniversiteParis Est | And 16 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2012

The pathogenesis of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTL), a rare entity mostly derived from γδ T cells and usually with a fatal outcome, remains largely unknown. In this study, HSTL samples (7γδ and 2αβ) and the DERL2 HSTL cell line were subjected to combined gene-expression profiling and array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Compared with other T-cell lymphomas, HSTL had a distinct molecular signature irrespective of TCR cell lineage. Compared with peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified and normal γδ T cells, HSTL overexpressed genes encoding NK-cell-associated molecules, oncogenes (FOS and VAV3), the sphingosine-1-phosphatase receptor 5 involved in cell trafficking, and the tyrosine kinase SYK, whereas the tumor-suppressor gene AIM1 (absent in melanoma 1) was among the most downexpressed. We found highly methylated CpG islands of AIM1 in DERL2 cells, and decitabine treatment induced a significant increase in AIM1 transcripts. Syk was present in HSTL cells and DERL2 cells contained phosphorylated Syk and were sensitive to a Syk inhibitor in vitro. Genomic profiles confirmed recurrent isochromosome 7q (n = 6/9) without alterations at the SYK and AIM1 loci. Our results identify a distinct molecular signature for HSTL and highlight oncogenic pathways that offer rationale for exploring new therapeutic options such as Syk inhibitors and demethylating agents. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology.

Huang Y.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Huang Y.,University Paris - Sud | De Reynies A.,Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer | De Leval L.,University of Liège | And 18 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2010

Biopsies and cell lines of natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (NKTCL) were subject to combined gene expression profiling and array-based comparative genomic hybridization analyses. Compared with peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, NKTCL had greater transcript levels for NK-cell and cytotoxic molecules, especially granzyme H. Compared with normal NKcells, tumors were closer to activated than resting cells and overexpressed several genes related to vascular biology, Epstein-Barr Virus-induced genes, and PDGFRA. Notably, platelet-derived growth factor receptor α and its phosphorylated form were confirmed at the protein level, and in vitro the MEC04 NKTCL cell line was sensitive to imatinib. Deregulation of the AKT, Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription, and nuclear factor-κB pathways was corroborated by nuclear expression of phosphorylated AKT, signal transducers and activators of transcription 3, and RelA in NKTCL, and several deregulated genes in these pathways mapped to regions of recurrent copy number aberrations (AKT3 [1q44], IL6R [1q21.3], CCL2 [17q12], TNFRSF21 [6p12.3]). Several features of NKTCL uncovered by this analysis suggest perturbation of angiogenic pathways. Integrative analysis also evidenced deregulation of the tumor suppressor HACE1 in the frequently deleted 6q21 region. This study highlights emerging oncogenic pathways in NKTCL and identifies novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets. © 2010 by The American Society of Hematology.

Bisig B.,University of Lausanne | Bisig B.,University of Liège | de Reynies A.,Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer | Bonnet C.,CHU Sart Tilman | And 10 more authors.
Haematologica | Year: 2013

Peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified is a heterogeneous group of aggressive neoplasms with indistinct borders. By gene expression profiling we previously reported unsupervised clusters of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified correlating with CD30 expression. In this work we extended the analysis of peripheral T-cell lymphoma molecular profiles to prototypical CD30+ peripheral T-cell lymphomas (anaplastic large cell lymphomas), and validated mRNA expression profiles at the protein level. Existing transcriptomic datasets from peripheral T-cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified and anaplastic large cell lymphomas were reanalyzed. Twenty-one markers were selected for immunohistochemical validation on 80 peripheral T-cell lymphoma samples (not otherwise specified, CD30+ and CD30-; anaplastic large cell lymphomas, ALK+ and ALK-), and differences between subgroups were assessed. Clinical follow-up was recorded. Compared to CD30- tumors, CD30+ peripheral T-cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified were significantly enriched in ALK- anaplastic large cell lymphoma-related genes. By immunohistochemistry, CD30+ peripheral T-cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified differed significantly from CD30- samples [down-regulated expression of T-cell receptor-associated proximal tyrosine kinases (Lck, Fyn, Itk) and of proteins involved in T-cell differentiation/activation (CD69, ICOS, CD52, NFATc2); upregulation of JunB and MUM1], while overlapping with anaplastic large cell lymphomas. CD30- peripheral T-cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified tended to have an inferior clinical outcome compared to the CD30+ subgroups. In conclusion, we show molecular and phenotypic features common to CD30+ peripheral T-cell lymphomas, and significant differences between CD30- and CD30+ peripheral T-cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified, suggesting that CD30 expression might delineate two biologically distinct subgroups. © 2013 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

Rousseaux S.,Joseph Fourier University | Rousseaux S.,Institute Albert Bonniot | Debernardi A.,Joseph Fourier University | Debernardi A.,Institute Albert Bonniot | And 25 more authors.
Science Translational Medicine | Year: 2013

Activation of normally silent tissue-specific genes and the resulting cell "identity crisis" are the unexplored consequences of malignant epigenetic reprogramming. We designed a strategy for investigating this reprogramming, which consisted of identifying a large number of tissue-restricted genes that are epigenetically silenced in normal somatic cells and then detecting their expression in cancer. This approach led to the demonstration that large-scale "off-context" gene activations systematically occur in a variety of cancer types. In our series of 293 lung tumors, we identified an ectopic gene expression signature associated with a subset of highly aggressive tumors, which predicted poor prognosis independently of the TNM (tumor size, node positivity, and metastasis) stage or histological subtype. The ability to isolate these tumors allowed us to reveal their common molecular features characterized by the acquisition of embryonic stem cell/germ cell gene expression profiles and the down-regulation of immune response genes. The methodical recognition of ectopic gene activations in cancer cells could serve as a basis for gene signature-guided tumor stratification, as well as for the discovery of oncogenic mechanisms, and expand the understanding of the biology of very aggressive tumors.

Malouf G.G.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Job S.,Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer | Paradis V.,Beaujon University Hospital | Fabre M.,Institute Gustave Roussy | And 8 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2014

Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLC) is a rare subtype of liver cancer occurring mostly in children and young adults. We have shown that FLC comprises two separate entities: pure (p-FLC) and mixed-FLC (m-FLC), differing in clinical presentation and course. We show that p-FLCs have a distinct gene expression signature different from that of m-FLCs, which have a signature similar to that of classical hepatocellular carcinomas. We found p-FLC profiles to be unique among 263 profiles related to diverse tumoral and nontumoral liver samples. We identified two distinct molecular subgroups of p-FLCs with different outcomes. Pathway analysis of p-FLCs revealed ERBB2 overexpression and an up-regulation of glycolysis, possibly leading to compensatory mitochondrial hyperplasia and oncocytic differentiation. Four of the sixteen genes most significantly overexpressed in p-FLCs were neuroendocrine genes: prohormone convertase 1 (PCSK1); neurotensin; delta/notch-like EGF repeat containing; and calcitonin. PCSK1 overexpression was validated by immunohistochemistry, yielding specific, diffuse staining of the protein throughout the cytoplasm, possibly corresponding to a functional form of this convertase. Conclusion: p-FLCs have a unique transcriptomic signature characterized by the strong expression of specific neuroendocrine genes, suggesting that these tumors may have a cellular origin different from that of HCC. Our data have implications for the use of genomic profiling for diagnosis and selection of targeted therapies in patients with p-FLC. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Nault J.-C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Nault J.-C.,University of Paris Descartes | De Reynies A.,Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer | Villanueva A.,Charles III University of Madrid | And 28 more authors.
Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

Background & Aims: Due to the phenotypic and molecular diversity of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), it is a challenge to determine a patient's prognosis. We aimed to identify new prognostic markers of patients with HCC treated by liver resection. Methods: We collected 314 HCC samples from patients at Bordeaux (1998-2007) and Créteil (2003-2007) hospitals in France. We analyzed the gene expression patterns of the tumors and compared expression patterns with patient survival times. Using the coefficient and regression formula of the multivariate Cox model, we identified a "5-gene score" associated with survival times. This molecular score was then validated in 2 groups of patients from Europe and the United States (n = 213) and China (n = 221). Results: The 5-gene score, based on combined expression level of HN1, RAN, RAMP3, KRT19, and TAF9, was associated with disease-specific survival times of 189 patients with resected HCC in Bordeaux (hazard ratio = 3.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.9-6.6; P <.0001). The association between the 5-gene score and disease-specific survival was validated in an independent cohort of 125 patients in Créteil (hazard ratio = 2.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-4.9; P <.0001). The 5-gene score more accurately predicted patient outcomes than gene expression signatures reported previously. In multivariate analyses, the 5-gene score was associated with disease-specific survival, independent of other clinical and pathology feature of HCC. Disease-specific survival was also predicted by combining data on microvascular invasion, the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer classification system, and the 5-gene score in a nomogram. The prognostic accuracy of the 5-gene score was further validated in European and US patients with hepatitis C, cirrhosis, and HCC (overall survival P =.002) and in Asian patients with HCC with hepatitis B (overall survival, P =.02). Combining the 5-gene score with the expression pattern of 186 genes in corresponding cirrhotic tissues increased its prognostic accuracy. Conclusions: The molecular 5-gene score is associated with outcomes of patients with HCC treated by resection in different clinical settings worldwide. This new biomarker should be tested in clinical trials to stratify patients in therapeutic decisions. © 2013 by the AGA Institute.

Karsenty S.,University of Nantes | Hirsch A.,Ligue nationale contre le cancer
Bulletin Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire | Year: 2010

Background - The first French program against cancer was carried out from 2003 to 2007. It included many important legal measures to reduce tobacco smoking. Three of them, increasing tobacco prices, restricting youth access and smoking in public areas, raised the question of their possible assessment through various data gathered from 1999 to 2008. Methods - Several data sources and linked publications were examined. Legal sales in France, estimations of foreign tobacco products purchases, prevalences in adults and youth could sometimes, but not always, allow longitudinal analysis. Results - Increasing tobacco prices induced a 31% drop in domestic legal sales adjusted for population size between 2002 and 2008. Foreign tobacco products would account for 12% to 20% of the total consumption depending on the sources, reckonings and year. Daily smoking prevalence in people aged 15-75 decreased by 12% between 1999 and 2005 without trend reversal later on. In youths aged 15 and 16 daily smoking prevalence decreased by 45% between 1999 and 2007. Discussion-conclusion - Estimating the importance of purchases out of France and their trends is not possible due to the lack of reliable and published data. Trends in total population smoking prevalence can fit with the domestic sales data but a new analysis is needed when new data are available in 2010. The cancer plan has revealed to be a succcess in terms of trends in adolescent smoking.

Cairo S.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Cairo S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Wang Y.,Vaccine Research Institute of San Diego | Wang Y.,University of California at Irvine | And 14 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2010

Myc activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis ofhepatoblastoma (HB), a rare embryonal neoplasm derived from liver progenitor cells. Here, microRNA (miR) expression profiling of 65 HBs evidenced differential patterns related to developmental stage and Myc activity. Undifferentiated aggressive HBs overexpressed the miR-371-3 cluster with concomitant down-regulation of the miR-100/let-7a-2/miR-125b-1 cluster, evoking an ES cell expression profile. ChIP and Myc inhibition assays in hepatoma cells demonstrated that both miR clusters are regulated by Myc in an opposite manner. We show that the two miR clusters exert antagonistic effects on cell proliferation and tumorigenicity. Moreover, their combined deregulation cooperated in modulating the hepatic tumor phenotype, implicating stem cell-like regulation of Myc-dependent miRs in poorly differentiated HBs. Importantly, a four-miR signature representative of these clusters efficiently stratified HB patients, and when applied to 241 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), it identified invasive tumors with a poor prognosis. Our data argue that Myc-driven reprogramming of miR expression patterns contributes to the aggressive phenotype of liver tumors originating from hepatic progenitor cells.

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