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Kuala Selangor, Malaysia

Tan C.-S.,Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute MARDI | Ng S.-T.,Ligno Biotech Sdn. Bhd | Tan J.,University of Malaya
Mycotaxon | Year: 2013

Lignosus cameronensis and L. tigris are described as new based on collections from the tropical forests of Pahang, Malaysia. Phenotypic and genotypic data support both as new species. Morphological features are illustrated, and the associated Internal Transcribed Region (ITS1 + 5.8S + ITS2) rDNA sequences have been deposited in the GenBank. Pore and basidiospore sizes are the main characters distinguishing these two Lignosus species from other members of the genus, with L. tigris distinguished from L. sacer by its larger pore size and smaller basidiospores and L. cameronensis separated from L. ekombitii by its smaller basidiospores. A key to the species of Lignosus is provided. © 2013. Mycotaxon, Ltd.

Lee S.S.,University of Malaya | Tan N.H.,University of Malaya | Fung S.Y.,University of Malaya | Sim S.M.,University of Malaya | And 2 more authors.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: The sclerotium of Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden (Tiger Milk mushroom) is used as a traditional medicine to relieve cough, asthma and chronic hepatitis. The traditional uses of the sclerotium are presumably related to its anti-inflammatory effect. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the sclerotial powder of L. rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden (Tiger Milk mushroom) cultivar TM02.Methods: The anti-acute inflammatory activity of the sclerotial powder of L. rhinocerotis cultivar TM02 was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw edema test while the inhibition of transudative and proliferative phases of chronic inflammation were studied by cotton pellet induced granuloma model. Sprague Dawley rats were used in both studies. The anti-inflammatory activity was also measured by inhibition of lipopolysaccharide induced TNF-alpha production in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.Results: Cold water extract (CWE), hot water extract (HWE) and methanol extract (ME) of the sclerotial powder of L. rhinocerotis cultivar TM02 possessed anti-acute inflammatory activity as was measured by carrageenan-induced paw edema test, with CWE being the most potent. The acute anti-inflammatory activity of the cold water extract (CWE) was mainly contributed by its high molecular weight (HMW) fraction isolated by Sephadex G50 gel filtration chromatography. Its protein component was very potent in the inhibition of TNF-alpha production with an IC50 of 0.76 μg/ml. CWE at 200 mg/kg did not inhibit transudative and proliferative phase of chronic inflammation as shown by using the cotton pellet induced granuloma model.Conclusions: Our results suggested that most of the bioactive substance(s) contributed to the acute-inflammatory activity of the sclerotial powder of L. rhinocerotis cultivar TM02 appear to be in the CWE, particularly its HMW fraction. The anti-inflammatory activity of CWE was mainly contributed by the protein component of the high molecular weight (HMW) fraction and it exhibited strong inhibitory effect on TNF-alpha production but the possibility of synergistic effect between HMW, MMW and LMW fractions cannot be excluded. Future studies will provide new insights into the anti-inflammatory activity of the sclerotial powder. © 2014 Lee et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Lee M.L.,University of Malaya | Tan N.H.,University of Malaya | Fung S.Y.,University of Malaya | Tan C.S.,Biotechnology Research Center | Ng S.T.,Ligno Biotech Sdn. Bhd
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2012

Lignosus rhinocerus, the tiger milk mushroom, is one of the most important medicinal mushrooms used by the indigenous people of Southeast Asia and China. It has been used to treat breast cancer. A cold water extract (LR-CW) prepared from the sclerotia of L. rhinocerus cultivar was found to exhibit antiproliferative activity against human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and human lung carcinoma (A549), with IC 50 of 96.7μg/mL and 466.7μg/mL, respectively. In comparison, LR-CW did not show significant cytotoxicity against the two corresponding human normal cells, 184B5 (human breast cell) and NL 20 (human lung cell). DNA fragmentation studies suggested that the cytotoxic action of LR-CW against cancer cells is mediated by apoptosis. Sephadex G-50 gel filtration fractionation of LR-CW yielded a high-molecular-weight and a low-molecular-weight fraction. The high-molecular-weight fraction contains mainly carbohydrate (68.7) and small amount of protein (3.6), whereas the low-molecular-weight fraction contains 31 carbohydrate and was devoid of protein. Only the high-molecular-weight fraction exhibited antiproliferative activity against cancer cells, with IC 50 of 70.0μg/mL and 76.7μg/mL, respectively. Thus, the cytotoxic action of the LR-CW is due to the high-molecular-weight fraction, either the proteins or protein-carbohydrate complex. Copyright 2012 M. L. Lee et al.

Yap H.-Y.Y.,University of Malaya | Chooi Y.-H.,University of Western Australia | Fung S.-Y.,University of Malaya | Ng S.-T.,Ligno Biotech Sdn. Bhd | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden (tiger milk mushroom) has long been known for its nutritional and medicinal benefits among the local communities in Southeast Asia. However, the molecular and genetic basis of its medicinal and nutraceutical properties at transcriptional level have not been investigated. In this study, the transcriptome of L. rhinocerotis sclerotium, the part with medicinal value, was analyzed using high-throughput Illumina HiSeqTM platform with good sequencing quality and alignment results. A total of 3,673, 117, and 59,649 events of alternative splicing, novel transcripts, and SNP variation were found to enrich its current genome database. A large number of transcripts were expressed and involved in the processing of gene information and carbohydrate metabolism. A few highly expressed genes encoding the cysteine-rich cerato-platanin, hydrophobins, and sugar-binding lectins were identified and their possible roles in L. rhinocerotis were discussed. Genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of glucans, six gene clusters encoding four terpene synthases and one each of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase and polyketide synthase, and 109 transcribed cytochrome P450 sequences were also identified in the transcriptome. The data from this study forms a valuable foundation for future research in the exploitation of this mushroom in pharmacological and industrial applications. © 2015 Yap et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Yap Y.H.,University of Malaya | Tan N.,University of Malaya | Fung S.,University of Malaya | Aziz A.A.,University of Malaya | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2013

Background: Lignosus rhinocerus (tiger milk mushroom) is an important medicinal mushroom used in Southeast Asia and China, and its sclerotium can be developed into functional food/nutraceuticals. The nutrient composition, antioxidant properties, and anti-proliferative activity of wild type and a cultivated strain of L. rhinocerus sclerotia were investigated. Results: The sclerotial powder has high carbohydrate but low fat content. Interestingly, the cultivated strain contains higher amounts of protein and water-soluble substances than the wild type. Phenolic content of hot-water, cold-water, and methanol extracts of the sclerotial powders ranged from 19.32 to 29.42mg gallic acid equivalents g-1 extract, while the ferric reducing antioxidant power values ranged from 0.006 to 0.016mmolmin-1g-1 extract. The DPPH•, ABTS•+, and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities of the extracts ranged from 0.52 to 1.12, 0.05 to 0.20, and -0.98 to 11.23mmol Trolox equivalents g-1 extract, respectively. Both strains exhibited strong superoxide anion radical scavenging activity comparable to rutin. The cold-water extracts exhibited anti-proliferative activity against human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells, with IC50 values of 206μgmL-1 and 90μgmL-1 for the wild type and cultivated strains, respectively. Conclusion: The cultivated L. rhinocerus sclerotium has the potential to be developed into functional food/nutraceuticals. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

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