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Light Street, GA, United States

Lo M.K.F.,Anasys Instruments Corp. | Dazzi A.,University Paris - Sud | Marcott C.A.,Light Light Solutions LLC | Dillon E.,Anasys Instruments Corp. | And 4 more authors.
ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Combined nanoscale chemical and mechanical property characterization has largely been limited by the inability to extend chemical structure identification techniques such as infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy into the nanometer regime due to diffraction limitations. The recent development of atomic force microscope (AFM) based IR spectroscopy (AFM-IR) has now enabled infrared chemical spectroscopy with resolution well below the diffraction limit. However, the combination of AFM-IR with other AFM based techniques to achieve nanoscale chemical structure-mechanical property characterization has yet to be demonstrated. In this regard, we have combined AFM-IR chemical and contact resonance AFM (CR-AFM) mechanical measurements in the investigation of low dielectric constant (low-k)/Cu damascene structures fabricated using a 90 nm interconnect process technology. We show that the combined AFM-IR and CR-AFM results can be utilized to perform nanoscale chemical-mechanical characterization of both the nano-patterned metal and the low-k dielectric whose mechanical properties are sensitive to chemical modification by the interconnect fabrication process. © 2015 The Electrochemical Society.

Eby T.,Kimberly-Clark Corporation | Gundusharma U.,Kimberly-Clark Corporation | Lo M.,Anasys Instruments Corp. | Sahagian K.,Anasys Instruments Corp. | And 2 more authors.
Spectroscopy Europe | Year: 2012

Using a combination of nanoscale infrared spectroscopy (AFM-IR) and nanoscale thermal analysis (nanoTA), the composition of a complex multilayer polymer film was deconstructed. (Table 1). Using an AFM cantilever as an IR absor-bance detector, the topography of the film's cross-section is directly correlated to the corresponding infrared spectra and transition temperatures at high spatial resolution. Chemical information about the small organic inclusions (as small as 1.2 pm) is extracted within Layers 4 and 6. The nanoTA technique determined the transition temperatures of each layer of the cross-section. Not only do the two methods complement and strengthen the validity of the chemical assignments, the chemical and thermal properties can be linked to the spatial and topographic information about the same sample. The results of AFM-IR and nanoTA may be combined with findings from other techniques such as scanning electron microanalysis (SEM) to obtain a full understanding of the material. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and IM Publications LLP.

Lanzarotta A.,Miami University Ohio | Lanzarotta A.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Marcott C.,Light Light Solutions LLC | Story G.M.,Procter and Gamble | And 2 more authors.
Applied Spectroscopy | Year: 2012

Several prism-based spectrographs employing a mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) focal plane array detector have been interfaced to an infrared microscope. In the combined system, the area-defining aperture of the microscope also served as the entrance slit to the spectrograph. This investigation considered the fundamental limits of diffraction for both the spectrograph and microscope in order to determine both the spatial and spectral resolution of the system as a whole. Experimental results for spectral resolution, spectral range, and peak-to-peak noise have been presented. Finally, the dynamic capabilities of one spectrograph/microscope combination were investigated. © 2012 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.

Marcott C.,Light Light Solutions LLC | Lo M.,Anasys Instruments Corp. | Kjoller K.,Anasys Instruments Corp. | Domanov Y.,LOreal | And 2 more authors.
Experimental Dermatology | Year: 2013

An atomic force microscope (AFM) and a tunable infrared (IR) laser source have been combined in a single instrument (AFM-IR) capable of producing ~200-nm spatial resolution IR spectra and absorption images. This new capability enables IR spectroscopic characterization of human stratum corneum at unprecendented levels. Samples of normal and delipidized stratum corneum were embedded, cross-sectioned and mounted on ZnSe prisms. A pulsed tunable IR laser source produces thermomechanical expansion upon absorption, which is detected through excitation of contact resonance modes in the AFM cantilever. In addition to reducing the total lipid content, the delipidization process damages the stratum corneum morphological structure. The delipidized stratum corneum shows substantially less long-chain CH2-stretching IR absorption band intensity than normal skin. AFM-IR images that compare absorbances at 2930/cm (lipid) and 3290/cm (keratin) suggest that regions of higher lipid concentration are located at the perimeter of corneocytes in the normal stratum corneum. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Marcott C.,Light Light Solutions LLC | Awatani T.,Nissan Motor Co. | Ye J.,Nissan Motor Co. | Lo M.,Anasys Instruments Corp. | Kjoller K.,Anasys Instruments Corp.
Spectroscopy Europe | Year: 2014

Experts review nanoscale infrared (IR) spectroscopy applications to energy related materials. The instrumentation which combines Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and IR spectroscopy (AFM-IR) is applied to some important energy-related materials, including Nafion® fuel cell membranes, organic photovoltaic solar energy materials, and a polymer blend material used in the oil and gas industry for hydraulic fracturing. The AFM-IR approach enables nanoscale chemical characterization of small spatial domains in these important energy-related materials at levels not previously possible using conventional diffraction-limited Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy. The AFM-IR technique used in all of the examples in this review article is based on the photothermal induced resonance (PTIR) effect.

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