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Cooranbong, Australia

Morton D.,Lifestyle Research Center | Callister R.,University of Newcastle
Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP), commonly referred to as ‘stitch’, is an ailment well known in many sporting activities. It is especially prevalent in activities that involve repetitive torso movement with the torso in an extended position, such as running and horse riding. Approximately 70 % of runners report experiencing the pain in the past year and in a single running event approximately one in five participants can be expected to suffer the condition. ETAP is a localized pain that is most common in the lateral aspects of the mid abdomen along the costal border, although it may occur in any region of the abdomen. It may also be related to shoulder tip pain, which is the referred site from tissue innervated by the phrenic nerve. ETAP tends to be sharp or stabbing when severe, and cramping, aching, or pulling when less intense. The condition is exacerbated by the postprandial state, with hypertonic beverages being particularly provocative. ETAP is most common in the young but is unrelated to sex or body type. Well trained athletes are not immune from the condition, although they may experience it less frequently. Several theories have been presented to explain the mechanism responsible for the pain, including ischemia of the diaphragm; stress on the supportive visceral ligaments that attach the abdominal organs to the diaphragm; gastrointestinal ischemia or distension; cramping of the abdominal musculature; ischemic pain resulting from compression of the celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament; aggravation of the spinal nerves; and irritation of the parietal peritoneum. Of these theories, irritation of the parietal peritoneum best explains the features of ETAP; however, further investigations are required. Strategies for managing the pain are largely anecdotal, especially given that its etiology remains to be fully elucidated. Commonly purported prevention strategies include avoiding large volumes of food and beverages for at least 2 hours prior to exercise, especially hypertonic compounds; improving posture, especially in the thoracic region; and supporting the abdominal organs by improving core strength or wearing a supportive broad belt. Techniques for gaining relief from the pain during an episode are equivocal. This article presents a contemporary understanding of ETAP, which historically has received little research attention but over the past 15 years has been more carefully studied. © 2014, The Author(s). Source

Kent L.,Lifestyle Research Center | McPherson M.,World Health Organization | Higgins N.,Communicable Disease Prevention and Control Unit
Journal of Water and Health | Year: 2015

Increased temperatures provide optimal conditions for pathogen survival, virulence and replication as well as increased opportunities for human-pathogen interaction. This paper examined the relationship between notifications of cryptosporidiosis and temperature in metropolitan and rural areas of Victoria, Australia between 2001 and 2009. A negative binomial regression model was used to analyse monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall and the monthly count of cryptosporidiosis notifications. In the metropolitan area, a 1 °C increase in monthly average minimum temperature of the current month was associated with a 22% increase in cryptosporidiosis notifications (incident rate ratio (IRR) 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.31). In the rural area, a 1 WC increase in monthly average minimum temperature, lagged by 3 months, was associated with a 9% decrease in cryptosporidiosis notifications (IRR 0.91; 95% CI 0.86-0.97). Rainfall was not associated with notifications in either area. These relationships should be considered when planning public health response to ecological risks as well as when developing policies involving climate change. Rising ambient temperature may be an early warning signal for intensifying prevention efforts, including appropriate education for pool users about cryptosporidiosis infection and management, which might become more important as temperatures are projected to increase as a result of climate change. © 2015 IWA Publishing. Source

Kent L.M.,Lifestyle Research Center | Morton D.P.,Lifestyle Research Center | Ward E.J.,Lifestyle Research Center | Rankin P.M.,Lifestyle Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Religion and Health | Year: 2016

Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) and non-SDA (21.3 and 78.7 %, respectively) individuals (n = 7172) participating in the Complete Health Improvement Program, a 30-day diet and lifestyle intervention, in North America (241 programs, 2006–2012) were assessed for changes in selected chronic disease risk factors: body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), pulse, lipid profile and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Reductions were greater among the non-SDA for BMI, pulse and blood lipids. Furthermore, the majority of non-SDA in the highest risk classifications for BP, lipids and FPG, but only some lipids among SDA, were able to show improvement by 20 % or more. © 2015, The Author(s). Source

Morton D.,Lifestyle Research Center | Rankin P.,Lifestyle Research Center | Kent L.,Lifestyle Research Center | Sokolies R.,University of Manitoba | And 3 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research | Year: 2014

Purpose: The short-term effectiveness of the nutrition-centred Complete Health Improvement Program (CHIP) lifestyle intervention for improving selected chronic disease risk factors was examined in the Canadian setting. Methods: A total of 1003 people (aged 56.3 ± 12.1 years, 68% female) were self-selected to participate in one of 27 CHIP interventions hosted in community settings by Seventh-day Adventist churches throughout Canada, between 2005 and 2011. The program centred on the promotion of a whole-food, plant-based eating pattern, and daily physical activity was also encouraged. Biometric measures, including body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), blood lipid profile, and fasting blood sugar (FBS), were determined at program entry and 30 days into the intervention. Results: Over 30 days, significant overall reductions (P<0.001) were recorded in the participants' BMI (-3.1%), systolic BP (-7.3%), diastolic BP (-4.3%), total cholesterol ([TC] -11.3%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ([LDL-C] -12.9%), triglycerides ([TG] -8.2%), and FBS (-7.0%). Participants with the highest classifications of TC, LDL-C, TG, and FBS at program entry experienced approximately 20% reductions in these measures in 30 days. Conclusions: The CHIP intervention, which centres on a whole-food, plant-based eating pattern, can lead to rapid and meaningful reductions in chronic disease risk factors in the Canadian context. Source

Kent L.M.,Lifestyle Research Center | Morton D.P.,Lifestyle Research Center | Rankin P.M.,Lifestyle Research Center | Gobble J.E.,Medical Nutrition Therapy Northwest | Diehl H.A.,Lifestyle Medicine Institute
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior | Year: 2015

Objective: To determine the differential effect of gender on outcomes of the Complete Health Improvement Program, a chronic disease lifestyle intervention program. Design: Thirty-day cohort study. Setting: One hundred thirty-six venues around North America, 2006 to2009. Participants: A total of 5,046 participants (33.5% men, aged 57.9 ± 13.0 years; 66.5% women, aged 57.0± 12.9 years). Intervention: Diet, exercise, and stress management. Main Outcome Measures: Body mass index, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, lipids, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Analysis: The researchers used t test and McNemar chi-square test of proportions, at P < .05. Results: Reductions were significantly greater for women for high-density lipoprotein (9.1% vs 7.6%) but greater for men for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (16.3% vs 11.5%), total cholesterol (TC) (13.2% vs 10.1%), triglycerides (11.4% vs 5.6%), FPG (8.2% vs 5.3%), body mass index (3.5% vs 3%), diastolic blood pressure (5.5% vs 5.1%), and TC/high-density lipoprotein (6.3% vs 1.4%) but not different for systolic blood pressure (6% vs 5%). The greatest reductions were in participants with the highest baseline TC, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and FPG classifications. Conclusions and Implications: The Complete Health Improvement Program effectively reduced chronic disease risk factors among both genders, but particularly men, with the largest reductions occurring in individuals at greatest risk. Physiological or behavioral factor explanations, including differences in adiposity and hormones, dietary intake, commitment and social support, are explored. Researchers should consider addressing gender differences in food preferences and eliciting commitment and differential support modes in the development of lifestyle interventions such as the Complete Health Improvement Program. © 2015 The Authors. Source

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