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Pearson N.,Loughborough University | Braithwaite R.E.,Humboldt State University | Biddle S.J.H.,Loughborough University | Biddle S.J.H.,Lifestyle and Physical Activity Biomedical Research Unit | And 2 more authors.
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2014

Physical activity and sedentary behaviour are associated with metabolic and mental health during childhood and adolescence. Understanding the inter-relationships between these behaviours will help to inform intervention design. This systematic review and meta-analysis synthesized evidence from observational studies describing the association between sedentary behaviour and physical activity in young people (<18years). English-language publications up to August 2013 were located through electronic and manual searches. Included studies presented statistical associations between at least one measure of sedentary behaviour and one measure of physical activity. One hundred sixty-three papers were included in the meta-analysis, from which data on 254 independent samples was extracted. In the summary meta-analytic model (k=230), a small, but significant, negative association between sedentary behaviour and physical activity was observed (r=-0.108, 95% confidence interval [CI]=-0.128, -0.087). In moderator analyses, studies that recruited smaller samples (n<100, r=-0.193, 95% CI=-0.276, -0.109) employed objective methods of measurement (objectively measured physical activity; r=-0.233, 95% CI=-0.330, -0.137) or were assessed to be of higher methodological quality (r=-0.176, 95% CI=-0.215, -0.138) reported stronger associations, although effect sizes remained small. The association between sedentary behaviour and physical activity in young people is negative, but small, suggesting that these behaviours do not directly displace one another. © 2014 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association for the Study of Obesity. Source


Buckley J.P.,University of Chester | Hedge A.,Cornell University | Yates T.,Lifestyle and Physical Activity Biomedical Research Unit | Yates T.,University of Leicester | And 5 more authors.
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2015

An international group of experts convened to provide guidance for employers to promote the avoidance of prolonged periods of sedentary work. The set of recommendations was developed from the totality of the current evidence, including long-term epidemiological studies and interventional studies of getting workers to stand and/or move more frequently. The evidence was ranked in quality using the four levels of the American College of Sports Medicine. The derived guidance is as follows: for those occupations which are predominantly desk based, workers should aim to initially progress towards accumulating 2 h/day of standing and light activity (light walking) during working hours, eventually progressing to a total accumulation of 4 h/day (prorated to part-time hours). To achieve this, seated-based work should be regularly broken up with standing-based work, the use of sit-stand desks, or the taking of short active standing breaks. Along with other health promotion goals (improved nutrition, reducing alcohol, smoking and stress), companies should also promote among their staff that prolonged sitting, aggregated from work and in leisure time, may significantly and independently increase the risk of cardiometabolic diseases and premature mortality. It is appreciated that these recommendations should be interpreted in relation to the evidence from which they were derived, largely observational and retrospective studies, or short-term interventional studies showing acute cardiometabolic changes. While longer term intervention studies are required, the level of consistent evidence accumulated to date, and the public health context of rising chronic diseases, suggest initial guidelines are justified. We hope these guidelines stimulate future research, and that greater precision will be possible within future iterations. Source


Tang J.,University of Exeter | Abraham C.,University of Exeter | Greaves C.,University of Exeter | Yates T.,Lifestyle and Physical Activity Biomedical Research Unit | Yates T.,University of Leicester
Journal of Medical Internet Research | Year: 2014

Background: A wide range of self-directed weight-loss interventions are available, providing users with a variety of tools delivered through various formats to regulate weight-related behavior patterns. However, it is unclear how effective self-directed interventions are and how they promote weight loss and weight maintenance. Objective: A systematic review of reviews was conducted to examine the effectiveness of such interventions and to identify intervention content associated with effectiveness. Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library for systematic reviews were searched from 2000-2012 for reviews of the effectiveness of self-directed interventions on weight loss and weight maintenance in adults. Two reviewers used predefined inclusion criteria to select relevant reviews and assess their quality using the Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire (OQAQ). We extracted data on effectiveness and on relationships between intervention characteristics and effectiveness. Results: Twenty reviews were included and quality assessed. Findings relevant to self-directed interventions, including interactive websites, smartphone applications, and text messaging (short message service, SMS) were summarized. Findings were mixed but promising. For example, one review of Internet-based interventions found that, when used in conjunction with standard weight loss programs, these interventions resulted in a significant average increase in weight loss of 1.5 kg over evaluation periods. Unfortunately, only 7 of 20 reviews were of high methodological quality according to OQAQ scores, and only 4 employed meta-analyses. Few reviews linked intervention content to effectiveness. Conclusions: Current evidence suggests that self-directed interventions can independently promote weight loss and can augment interventions involving personal contact. Particular change techniques and delivery modes including individualized feedback, email counseling, and online social support appear to enhance effectiveness. Further reviews of the content of self-directed weight-loss intervention studies are needed to clarify which change techniques delivered through which delivery formats optimize intervention effectiveness. Source


Brown H.E.,University of Queensland | Pearson N.,Loughborough University | Pearson N.,Lifestyle and Physical Activity Biomedical Research Unit | Braithwaite R.E.,Humboldt State University | And 4 more authors.
Sports Medicine | Year: 2013

Context: Evidence suggests chronic physical activity (PA) participation may be both protective against the onset of and beneficial for reducing depressive symptoms. Objective: The aim of this article is to assess the impact of PA interventions on depression in children and adolescents using meta-analysis. Data sources: Published English language studies were located from manual and computerized searches of the following databases: PsycInfo, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI; EPPI Centre), Web of Science and MEDLINE. Study selection: Studies meeting inclusion criteria (1) reported on interventions to promote or increase PA; (2) included children aged 5-11 years and/or adolescents aged 12-19 years; (3) reported on results using a quantitative measure of depression; (4) included a non-physical control or comparison group; and (5) were published in peer-reviewed journals written in English, up to and including May 2011 (when the search was conducted). Data extraction: Studies were coded for methodological, participant and study characteristics. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version-2 software was used to compute effect sizes, with subgroup analyses to identify moderating characteristics. Study quality was assessed using the Delphi technique. Results: Nine studies were included (n = 581); most were school-based randomized controlled trials, randomized by individual. Studies used a variety of measurement tools to assess depressive symptoms. The summary treatment effect was small but significant (Hedges' g = -0.26, standard error = 0.09, 95% confidence intervals = -0.43, -0.08, p = 0.004). Subgroup analyses showed that methodological (e.g. studies with both education and PA intervention; those with a higher quality score; and less than 3 months in duration) and participant characteristics (e.g. single-gender studies; those targeting overweight or obese groups) contributed most to the reduction in depression. Conclusions: There was a small significant overall effect for PA on depression. More outcome-focused, high-quality trials are required to effectively inform the implementation of programmes to reduce depressive symptoms in children and adolescents. © 2012 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source


Pearson N.,Loughborough University | Braithwaite R.,Humboldt State University | Biddle S.J.H.,Loughborough University | Biddle S.J.H.,Lifestyle and Physical Activity Biomedical Research Unit
Academic Pediatrics | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Research has shown that a clear decline in physical activity among girls starting in early adolescence. Therefore, adolescent girls have been identified as a key target population for physical activity behavior change. The quantification of intervention effectiveness for this group has not been previously reported in a meta-analysis, and this therefore was the objective of the current meta-analysis. STUDY SELECTION: Included were interventions in which the main component, or 1 of the components, was aimed at promoting physical activity through behavior change in any setting. Interventions had to include a non-physical activity control group or comparison group, and include a quantitative outcome assessment of physical activity behavior in girls aged 12 to 18 years. DATA SOURCES: Science Direct, PubMed, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, and EPPI Centre databases were searched up to and including May 2013. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Forty-five studies (k = 34 independent samples) were eligible from an initial 13,747 references. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted. RESULTS: The average treatment effect for adolescent girls involved in physical activity interventions was significant but small (g = 0.350, 95% confidence interval 0.12, 0.58, P < .001). Moderator analyses showed larger effects for interventions that were theory based, performed in schools, were girls only, with younger girls, used multicomponent strategies, and involved targeting both physical activity and sedentary behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to increase physical activity in adolescent girls show small but significant effects, suggesting that behavior change may be challenging. Results suggest some approaches that appear to be successful. Copyright © 2015 by Academic Pediatric Association. Source

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