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Sternberg H.,Biotime, Inc. | Kidd J.,Biotime, Inc. | Murai J.T.,Biotime, Inc. | Jiang J.,Biotime, Inc. | And 7 more authors.
Regenerative Medicine | Year: 2013

Aim: The transcriptomes of seven diverse clonal human embryonic progenitor cell lines with chondrogenic potential were compared with that of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Materials & methods: The cell lines 4D20.8, 7PEND24, 7SMOO32, E15, MEL2, SK11 and SM30 were compared with MSCs using immunohistochemical methods, gene expression microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR. Results: In the undifferentiated progenitor state, each line displayed unique combinations of site-specific markers, including AJAP1, ALDH1A2, BMP5, BARX1, HAND2, HOXB2, LHX1, LHX8, PITX1, TBX15 and ZIC2, but none of the lines expressed the MSC marker CD74. The lines showed diverse responses when differentiated in the presence of combinations of TGF-β3, BMP2, 4, 6 and 7 and GDF5, with the lines 4D20.8, SK11, SM30 and MEL2 showing osteogenic markers in some differentiation conditions. The line 7PEND24 showed evidence of regenerating articular cartilage and, in some conditions, markers of tendon differentiation. Conclusion: The scalability of site-specific clonal human embryonic stem cell-derived embryonic progenitor cell lines may provide novel models for the study of differentiation and methods for preparing purified and identified cells types for use in therapy. Original submitted 16 October 2012; Revised submitted 22 November 2012; Published online 18 December 201. © 2013 Future Medicine Ltd. Source


Sternberg H.,Biotime, Inc. | Jiang J.,Biotime, Inc. | Sim P.,Biotime, Inc. | Kidd J.,Biotime, Inc. | And 8 more authors.
Regenerative Medicine | Year: 2014

Aims: The transcriptome and fate potential of three diverse human embryonic stem cell-derived clonal embryonic progenitor cell lines with markers of cephalic neural crest are compared when differentiated in the presence of combinations of TGFβ3, BMP4, SCF and HyStem-C matrices. Materials & methods: The cell lines E69 and T42 were compared with MEL2, using gene expression microarrays, immunocytochemistry and ELISA. Results: In the undifferentiated progenitor state, each line displayed unique markers of cranial neural crest including TFAP2A and CD24; however, none expressed distal HOX genes including HOXA2 or HOXB2, or the mesenchymal stem cell marker CD74. The lines also showed diverse responses when differentiated in the presence of exogenous BMP4, BMP4 and TGFβ3, SCF, and SCF and TGFβ3. The clones E69 and T42 showed a profound capacity for expression of endochondral ossification markers when differentiated in the presence of BMP4 and TGFβ3, choroid plexus markers in the presence of BMP4 alone, and leptomeningeal markers when differentiated in SCF without TGFβ3. Conclusion: The clones E69 and T42 may represent a scalable source of primitive cranial neural crest cells useful in the study of cranial embryology, and potentially cell-based therapy. © 2014 Future Medicine Ltd. Source


Olender T.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Safran M.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Edgar R.,LifeMap science | Stelzer G.,Weizmann Institute of Science | And 10 more authors.
Israel Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2013

A network of biological databases is reviewed, supplying a framework for studies of human genes and the association of their genomic variations with human phenotypes. The network is composed of GeneCards, the human gene compendium, which provides comprehensive information on all known and predicted human genes, along with its suite members GeneDecks and GeneLoc. Two databases are shown that address genes and variations focusing on olfactory reception (HORDE) and transduction (GOSdb). In the realm of disease scrutiny, we portray MalaCards, a novel comprehensive database of human diseases and their annotations. Also shown is GeneKid, a tool aimed at generating novel kidney disease biomarkers using systems biology, as well as Xome, a database for whole-exome next-generation DNA sequences for human diseases in the Israeli population. Finally, we show LifeMap Discovery, a database of embryonic development, stem cell research and regenerative medicine, which links to both GeneCards and MalaCards. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

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