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Southampton, United Kingdom

Edwards M.H.,Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit | Curtis E.M.,Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit | Ledingham J.M.,Queen Alexandra Hospital
BMJ Case Reports | Year: 2015

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) can affect women of childbearing age. However, reports of the disease in the postpartum period are limited. We present a case of postpartum-onset EGPA that went into clinical remission before relapsing in the subsequent postpartum period. Our patient presented with dyspnoea, arthralgia and rash, shown to be eosinophilic vasculitis, 3 days following the birth of her second child. CT of the thorax showed alveolar shadowing and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. She was treated successfully for EGPA with glucocorticoid therapy. She declined maintenance treatment during remission. Off treatment, she remained disease free throughout her next pregnancy. In the postpartum period she relapsed in an almost identical manner, requiring prolonged glucocorticoid therapy, cyclophosphamide and rituximab. This case highlights the importance of maintenance therapy around pregnancy in individuals with EGPA, and the need for careful monitoring of women with a history of EGPA in the postpartum period. © 2015 CrossMark.

Gale C.R.,Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit | Gale C.R.,University of Edinburgh | Deary I.J.,University of Edinburgh | Cooper C.,Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit | And 2 more authors.
Pain | Year: 2012

Psychological factors are thought to play a part in the aetiology of chronic widespread pain. We investigated the relationship between intelligence in childhood and risk of chronic widespread pain in adulthood in 6902 men and women from the National Child Development Survey (1958 British Birth Cohort). Participants took a test of general cognitive ability at age 11 years; and chronic widespread pain, defined according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, was assessed at age 45 years. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using log-binomial regression, adjusting for sex and potential confounding or mediating factors. Risk of chronic widespread pain, defined according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, rose in a stepwise fashion as intelligence fell (P for linear trend <0.0001). In sex-adjusted analyses, for an SD lower intelligence quotient, the RR of chronic widespread pain was 1.26 (95% CI 1.17-1.35). In multivariate backwards stepwise regression, lower childhood intelligence remained as an independent predictor of chronic widespread pain (RR 1.10; 95% CI 1.01-1.19), along with social class, educational attainment, body mass index, smoking status, and psychological distress. Part of the effect of lower childhood intelligence on risk of chronic widespread pain in midlife was significantly mediated through greater body mass index and more disadvantaged socioeconomic position. Men and women with higher intelligence in childhood are less likely as adults to report chronic widespread pain. © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Jones A.,University College London | Osmond C.,Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit | Godfrey K.M.,Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit | Godfrey K.M.,University of Southampton | Phillips D.I.W.,Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Adverse fetal environments are associated with depression, reduced cognitive ability and increased stress responsiveness in later life, but underlying mechanisms are unknown. Environmental pressures on the fetus, resulting from variations in placental function and maternal nutrition, health and stress might alter neurodevelopment, promoting the development of some brain regions over others. As asymmetry of cerebral activity, with greater right hemisphere activity, has been associated with psychopathology, we hypothesized that regional specialization during fetal life might be reflected persistently in the relative activity of the cerebral hemispheres. We tested this hypothesis in 140 healthy 8-9 year-old children, using tympanic membrane temperature to assess relative blood flow to the cerebral hemispheres at rest and following psychosocial stress (Trier Social Stress Test for Children). Their birth weight and placental weight had already been measured when their mothers took part in a previous study of pregnancy outcomes. We found that children who had a smaller weight at birth had evidence of greater blood flow to the right hemisphere than to the left hemisphere (r = -.09, P =. 29 at rest; r = -.18, P =. 04 following stress). This finding was strengthened if the children had a relatively low birth weight for their placental weight (r = -.17, P =. 05 at rest; r = -.31, P =. 0005 following stress). Our findings suggest that lateralization of cerebral activity is influenced persistently by early developmental experiences, with possible consequences for long-term neurocognitive function. © 2011 Jones et al.

Dhanwal D.K.,Maulana Azad Medical College | Siwach R.,Pandit Bd Sharma Postgraduate Institute Of Medical Science | Dixit V.,Maulana Azad Medical College | Mithal A.,Medicity | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Osteoporosis | Year: 2013

Hip fracture incidence is not known in India. This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate hip fracture incidence rates in Rohtak, a single district of North India. A total of 304 patients from this district with hip fracture were hospitalized during the calendar year 2009. The crude hip fracture rates were found to be 159 and 105 per 100,000, respectively, in women and men above the age of 50 years. Hip fracture is a significant health problem in North India. Purpose: This aims to study hip fracture incidence in Rohtak district of North India. Methods: The study was conducted in Rohtak district, Haryana state, India located 80 km north of New Delhi. All patients having hip fracture admitted in Pandit B.D. Sharma Postgraduate Institute or one of the four orthopaedic centres located in Rohtak in year 2009 were included. Total population of Rohtak for the year 2009 was used to calculate age-specific hip fracture incidence. Results: A total of 541 patients with hip fracture were hospitalized in Rohtak district in year 2009. Out of these, 304 were from Rohtak district. Hip fracture crude incidence above the age of 50 years was 129 per 100,000. The corresponding figures were 105 and 159 per 100,000 among men and women, respectively. Hip fracture incidence was similar in both sexes till age of 55 years. From age of 55 onwards, the rates were significantly higher in women. Conclusions: This is the first hip fracture incidence study from India. Hip fracture incidence rates in Rohtak district of India are intermediate between those in the industrialised world and Africa and similar to some of Asian countries such as China, Iran and South Korea. This study will help in formulating strategies for prevention of hip fracture in India. © 2013 International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation.

Prieto-Alhambra D.,URFOA IMIM | Prieto-Alhambra D.,University of Oxford | Prieto-Alhambra D.,Institute Catala Of La Salut | Prieto-Alhambra D.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 19 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2012

Aromatase inhibitor (AI)-related bone loss is associated with increased fracture rates. Vitamin D might play a role in minimising this effect. We hypothesised that 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations [25(OH)D] after 3 months supplementation might relate to bone loss after 1 yearonAItherapy. Weconductedaprospectivecohort study from January 2006 to December 2011 of a consecutive sample of women initiating AI for early breast cancer who were ineligible for bisphosphonate therapy and stayed on treatment for 1 year (N = 232). Serum 25(OH)D was measured at baseline and 3 months, and lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density at baseline and 1 year. Subjects were supplemented with daily calcium (1 g) and vitamin D 3 (800 IU) and additional oral 16,000 IU every 2 weeks if baseline 25(OH)D was <30 ng/ml. Linear regression models were fitted to adjust for potential confounders. After 1 year on AI therapy, 232 participants experienced a significant 1.68 % [95 % CI 1.15-2.20 %] bone loss at LS (0.017 g/cm 2 [0.012-0.024], P<0.0001). Higher 25(OH)D at 3 months protected against LS bone loss (-0.5 % per 10 ng/ml [95 % CI -0.7 to -0.3 %], adjusted P = 0.0001), and those who reached levels ≥C40 ng/ml had reduced bone loss by 1.70 % [95 % CI 0.4-3.0 %; adjusted P = 0.005] compared to those with low 25(OH)D levels (<30 ng/ml). We conclude that improved vitamin D status using supplementation is associated with attenuation of AI-associated bone loss. For this population, the current Institute of Medicine target recommendation of 20 ng/ml might be too low to ensure good bone health. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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