Ohnishi S.T.,University of Pennsylvania |
Salerno J.C.,Life University at Georgia |
Ohnishi T.,University of Pennsylvania
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics | Year: 2010
In many energy transducing systems which couple electron and proton transport, for example, bacterial photosynthetic reaction center, cytochrome bc1-complex (complex III) and E. coli quinol oxidase (cytochrome bo3 complex), two protein-associated quinone molecules are known to work together. T. Ohnishi and her collaborators reported that two distinct semiquinone species also play important roles in NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). They were called SQNf (fast relaxing semiquinone) and SQNs (slow relaxing semiquinone). It was proposed that QNf serves as a "direct" proton carrier in the semiquinone-gated proton pump (Ohnishi and Salerno, FEBS Letters 579 (2005) 4555), while QNs works as a converter between one-electron and two-electron transport processes. This communication presents a revised hypothesis in which QNf plays a role in a "direct" redox-driven proton pump, while QNs triggers an "indirect" conformation-driven proton pump. QNf and QNs together serve as (1e-/2e-) converter, for the transfer of reducing equivalent to the Q-pool. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Ingram K.H.,University of Alabama at Birmingham |
Hill H.,Novo Nordisk AS |
Moellering D.R.,University of Alabama at Birmingham |
Hill B.G.,University of Louisville |
And 8 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2012
Objective: The relationships among skeletal muscle lipid peroxidation, intramyocellular lipid content (IMCL), and insulin sensitivity were evaluated in nine insulin-sensitive (IS), 13 insulin-resistant (IR), and 10 adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Design: Insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp [glucose disposal rate (GDR)]. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE)-protein adducts and general oxidative stress by protein carbonyl content. All patients were sedentary. Results: Protein-HNE adducts were elevated 1.6-fold in T2DM compared with IS adults, whereas IR showed intermediate levels of HNE-modified proteins. Protein-HNE adducts correlated with GDR, waist circumference, and body mass index. IMCL was increased by 4.0- and 1.9-fold in T2DM and IR patients, respectively, compared with IS, and was correlated with GDR and waist circumference but not BMI. Protein carbonyls were not different among groups and did not correlate with any of the measured variables. Correlations were detected between IMCL and protein-HNE. Conclusion: Our data show for the first time that skeletal muscle protein-HNE adducts are related to the severity of insulin resistance in sedentary adults. These results suggest that muscle lipid peroxidation couldbeinvolvedinthedevelopmentofinsulin resistance. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society.
Orrock J.L.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Dutra H.P.,Life University at Georgia |
Marquis R.J.,University of Missouri-St. Louis |
Barber N.,Northern Illinois University
Ecology | Year: 2015
Direct and indirect effects can play a key role in invasions, but experiments evaluating both are rare. We examined the roles of direct competition and apparent competition by exotic Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) by manipulating (1) L. maackii vegetation, (2) presence of L. maackii fruits, and (3) access to plants by small mammals and deer. Direct competition with L. maackii reduced the abundance and richness of native and exotic species, and native consumers significantly reduced the abundance and richness of native species. Although effects of direct competition and consumption were more pervasive, richness of native plants was also reduced through apparent competition, as small-mammal consumers reduced richness only when L. maackii fruits were present. Our experiment reveals the multiple, interactive pathways that affect the success and impact of an invasive exotic plant: exotic plants may directly benefit from reduced attack by native consumers, may directly exert strong competitive effects on native plants, and may also benefit from apparent competition. © 2015 by the Ecological Society of America.
Kovacs M.S.,Life University at Georgia |
Katzfey T.,Life University at Georgia
Strength and Conditioning Journal | Year: 2015
TRAINING THE FOOTBALL QUARTERBACK (QB) REQUIRES A UNIQUE UNDERSTANDING OF THE BIOMECHANICS OF THE MOTION INVOLVED AND THE NEED TO TRAIN THE INDIVIDUAL TO PERFORM THE MOVEMENTS NECESSARY TO MOVE EFFICIENTLY, POSITION THE LIMBS EFFECTIVELY, AND LOAD THE KINETIC CHAIN SUCCESSFULLY. ALL OF THIS NEEDS TO OCCUR WITHIN A MINIMAL TIME PERIOD UNDER SIGNIFICANT TIME PRESSURE AND A CHANGING DEFENSE. HAVING A STRUCTURED, QB-SPECIFIC, PROGRAM CAN AID IN THIS DEVELOPMENT BY CREATING AND IMPLEMENTING A TRAINING PROGRAM TO FOCUS ON THE SPECIFIC NEEDS OF THE ATHLETE WITHIN THE LARGER TEAM-BASED STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING PROGRAM. © 2015 National Strength and Conditioning Association.
Ballerini E.S.,Harvard University |
Ballerini E.S.,Life University at Georgia |
Kramer E.M.,Harvard University
EvoDevo | Year: 2011
Background: Flowering is a critical transition in plant development, the timing of which can have considerable fitness consequences. Until recently, research into the genetic control of flowering time and its associated developmental changes was focused on core eudicots (for example, Arabidopsis) or monocots (for example, Oryza). Here we examine the flowering response of Aquilegia formosa, a member of the eudicot order Ranunculales that is emerging as an important model for the investigation of plant ecology and evolution.Results: We have determined that A. formosa has a strong vernalization requirement but little or no photoperiod response, making it a day neutral (DN) plant. Consistent with this, the Aquilegia homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T (AqFT) is expressed in both long and short days but surprisingly, the locus is expressed before the transition to flowering. In situ hybridizations with homologs of several Arabidopsis Floral Pathway Integrators (FPIs) do not suggest conserved functions relative to Arabidopsis, the potential exceptions being AqLFY and AqAGL24.2.Conclusions: In Aquilegia, vernalization is critical to flowering but this signal is not strictly required for the transcriptional activation of AqFT. The expression patterns of AqLFY and AqAGL24.2 suggest a hypothesis for the development of Aquilegia's determinate inflorescence whereby their differential expression controls the progression of each meristem from inflorescence to floral identity. Interestingly, none of the Aquilegia expression patterns are consistent with a function in floral repression which, combined with the lack of a FLC homolog, means that new candidate genes must be identified for the control of vernalization response in Aquilegia. © 2011 Ballerini and Kramer; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Dutra H.P.,Life University at Georgia |
Barnett K.,University of Missouri-St. Louis |
Reinhardt J.R.,University of Missouri-St. Louis |
Marquis R.J.,University of Missouri-St. Louis |
Orrock J.L.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Oecologia | Year: 2011
Understanding the effects of invasive plants on native consumers is important because consumer-mediated indirect effects have the potential to alter the dynamics of coexistence in native communities. Invasive plants may promote changes in consumer pressure due to changes in protective cover (i. e., the architectural complexity of the invaded habitat) and in food availability (i. e., subsidies of fruits and seeds). No experimental studies have evaluated the relative interplay of these two effects. In a factorial experiment, we manipulated cover and food provided by the invasive shrub Amur honeysuckle (Loniceramaackii) to evaluate whether this plant alters the foraging activity of native mammals. Using tracking plates to quantify mammalian foraging activity, we found that removal of honeysuckle cover, rather than changes in the fruit resources it provides, reduced the activity of important seed consumers, mice in the genus Peromyscus. Two mesopredators, Procyonlotor and Didelphisvirginiana, were also affected. Moreover, we found rodents used L. maackii for cover only on cloudless nights, indicating that the effect of honeysuckle was weather-dependent. Our work provides experimental evidence that this invasive plant species changes habitat characteristics, and in so doing alters the behavior of small-and medium-sized mammals. Changes in seed predator behavior may lead to cascading effects on the seeds that mice consume. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
McCoy M.,Life University at Georgia |
Wijayawardana S.,Emory University |
Easley K.,Emory University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the intra-examiner and inter-examiner reproducibility of paraspinal thermography using an infrared scanner. Materials and Methods: The thermal functions of a commercially available infrared scanner (Insight Subluxation Station®) were evaluated for clinical reliability. Two practicing clinicians conducted the measures on 100 subjects. Intra class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) were calculated from the collected data. Results: Mean bilateral paraspinal skin temperature was 89.78° F and ranged from 88.77° F to 91.43° F. Intra class correlation coefficients (ICCs) for agreement and consistency ranged from 0.959 to 0.976. Concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) ranged from 0.783 to 0.859 with tight confidence intervals indicating robust estimates of these quantities. Conclusion: This study revealed excellent intra-examiner and inter-examiner reproducibility of paraspinal thermography using a commercially available unit. © 2011 McCoy et al.
Orrock J.L.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Christopher C.C.,Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden |
Dutra H.P.,Life University at Georgia
Oecologia | Year: 2012
Soil-borne seed pathogens may play an important role in either hindering or facilitating the spread of invasive exotic plants. We examined whether the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii (Caprifoliaceae) affected fungi-mediated mortality of conspecific and native shrub seeds in a deciduous forest in eastern Missouri. Using a combination of L. maackii removal and fungicide treatments, we found no effect of L. maackii invasion on seed viability of the native Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (Caprifoliaceae) or Cornus drummondii (Cornaceae). In contrast, fungi were significant agents of L. maackii seed mortality in invaded habitats. Losses of L. maackii to soil fungi were also significant in invaded habitats where L. maackii had been removed, although the magnitude of the effect of fungi was lower, suggesting that changes in soil chemistry or microhabitat caused by L. maackii were responsible for affecting fungal seed pathogens. Our work suggests that apparent competition via soil pathogens is not an important factor contributing to impacts of L. maackii on native shrubs. Rather, we found that fungal seed pathogens have density-dependent effects on L. maackii seed survival. Therefore, while fungal pathogens may provide little biotic resistance to early invasion by L. maackii, our study illustrates that more work is needed to understand how changes in fungal pathogens during the course of an invasion contribute to the potential for restoration of invaded systems. More generally, our study suggests that increased rates of fungal pathogen attack may be realized by invasive plants, such as L. maackii, that change the chemical or physical environment of the habitats they invade. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
McCoy M.,Life University at Georgia
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine | Year: 2011
Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine whether a standardized, commercial wellness protocol (Creating Wellness) that focuses on diet, exercise, vitamin supplementation, and one-on-one coaching improves anthropometric and physiologic function and reduces health risk factors. Methods: Using a retrospective analysis of subject data collected through a central data repository, several measures of anthropometric and physiologic function were analyzed for changes in outcome. Results: There were 197 private chiropractic clinics in the United States utilizing the Creating Wellness protocol in 2007. A total of 178 subjects completed an 18-week protocol and had initial and final assessments. All anthropometric and physiologic measures showed improvement following the intervention; therefore, this standardized wellness protocol was shown to improve weight, heart rate, blood pressure, strength, body-mass index, and forced vital capacity. Paired sample t tests and significance testing for the entire sample, and for both genders separately, determined that these changes were statistically significant. Conclusions: The Creating Wellness protocol leads to improved health risk factor outcomes based on improvement in anthropometric and physiologic measures in this study population. The results of these tests are generally accepted measures of risk for cardiovascular events, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. There are little evaluative data on health outcomes related to programs designed to reduce risk of lifestyle-related diseases. For those clients utilizing the program evaluated in this study, there appears to be evidence suggesting improved health risk factor outcomes from participation in this specific protocol. The results of this study have implications related to a broad number of public health issues related to management of chronic lifestyle diseases. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Sell K.,Hofstra University |
Hainline B.,United States Tennis Association |
Yorio M.,United States Tennis Association |
Kovacs M.,Life University at Georgia |
Kovacs M.,United States Tennis Association Player Development Incorporated
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2014
Objective: Injuries can be a debilitating aspect of professional tennis. Injury rates and trends at the US Open Tennis Championships over multiple years are unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine injury trends in professional tennis players competing in a major professional tennis tournament between 1994 and 2009. Methods: From 1994 to 2009, injury data from the US Open Tennis Championships were recorded. Injuries were classified by location and type using terminology derived from a consensus statement developed specifically for tennis. Injury rates were determined based on the exposure of an athlete to a match event, and were calculated as the ratio of injuries per 1000 match exposures (MEs). Results: There was a statistically significant fluctuation in injuries across the timeframe analysed (p<0.05). There were 76.2±19.6 total injuries and 43.8±11.8 acute injuries per year seeking medical assistance. Muscle or tendon injuries were the most common type of acute injury. The rate of lower limb injuries was significantly higher than upper limb and trunk injuries ( p<0.01). The ankle, followed by the wrist, knee, foot/toe and shoulder/ clavicle were the most common injury sites. Conclusions: Acute injuries occurred more frequently than gradual-onset injuries, and most common injury types were similar to previously examined populations. However, there were differences in injury location trends compared to previous research, suggesting that further research in this elite-level population is warranted.