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Farooq A.,Aspetar | Knez W.L.,Aspetar | Knez K.,Aspetar | Al-Noaimi A.,Supreme Council of Health | And 3 more authors.
Mediators of Inflammation | Year: 2013

Recent studies from the Gulf region suggest that compared to men, women have a greater risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MeS). Objective. To investigate gender differences in body composition, adipokines, inflammatory markers, and aerobic fitness in a cohort of healthy Qatari adults. Participants. Healthy Qatari (n=58) were matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Methods. Body composition and regional fat distribution were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computerized tomography. Laboratory assessments included serum levels of fasting glucose, insulin, lipid profile analysis, adipokines, and inflammatory markers. Subjects were also evaluated for aerobic fitness. Results. Women had more adipose tissue in the total abdominal (P=0.04) and abdominal subcutaneous (P=0.07) regions compared to men. Waist circumference and indices of insulin sensitivity were similar; however, women had a more favourable lipid profile than men. Serum adiponectin and leptin levels were significantly higher in women, whereas inflammatory profiles were not different between men and women. Aerobic fitness was lower in women and was associated with abdominal fat accumulation. Conclusion. In premenopausal women, higher levels of adiponectin may support maintenance of insulin sensitivity and normolipidemia despite greater adiposity. However, poor aerobic fitness combined with abdominal fat accumulation may explain their greater future risk of MeS compared with men. © 2013 Abdulaziz Farooq et al.

Diboun I.,Cornell College | Mathew S.,Cornell College | Al-Rayyashi M.,Cornell College | Elrayess M.,Life Science Research Division | And 7 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2015

Background: Dates are tropical fruits with appreciable nutritional value. Previous attempts at global metabolic characterization of the date metabolome were constrained by small sample size and limited geographical sampling. In this study, two independent large cohorts of mature dates exhibiting substantial diversity in origin, varieties and fruit processing conditions were measured by metabolomics techniques in order to identify major determinants of the fruit metabolome. Results: Multivariate analysis revealed a first principal component (PC1) significantly associated with the dates' countries of production. The availability of a smaller dataset featuring immature dates from different development stages served to build a model of the ripening process in dates, which helped reveal a strong ripening signature in PC1. Analysis revealed enrichment in the dry type of dates amongst fruits with early ripening profiles at one end of PC1 as oppose to an overrepresentation of the soft type of dates with late ripening profiles at the other end of PC1. Dry dates are typical to the North African region whilst soft dates are more popular in the Gulf region, which partly explains the observed association between PC1 and geography. Analysis of the loading values, expressing metabolite correlation levels with PC1, revealed enrichment patterns of a comprehensive range of metabolite classes along PC1. Three distinct metabolic phases corresponding to known stages of date ripening were observed: An early phase enriched in regulatory hormones, amines and polyamines, energy production, tannins, sucrose and anti-oxidant activity, a second phase with on-going phenylpropanoid secondary metabolism, gene expression and phospholipid metabolism and a late phase with marked sugar dehydration activity and degradation reactions leading to increased volatile synthesis. Conclusions: These data indicate the importance of date ripening as a main driver of variation in the date metabolome responsible for their diverse nutritional and economical values. The biochemistry of the ripening process in dates is consistent with other fruits but natural dryness may prevent degenerative senescence in dates following ripening. Based on the finding that mature dates present varying extents of ripening, our survey of the date metabolome essentially revealed snapshots of interchanging metabolic states during ripening empowering an in-depth characterization of underlying biology. © 2015 Diboun et al.

Abdesselem H.,Foundation Medicine | Madani A.,Foundation Medicine | Hani A.,Foundation Medicine | Al-Noubi M.,Foundation Medicine | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2016

The expansion of fat mass in the obese state is due to increased adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia. The molecular mechanism that drives adipocyte hyperplasia remains unknown. The NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a key regulator of mammalian metabolism, maintains proper metabolic functions in many tissues, counteracting obesity. Here we report that differentiated adipocytes are hyperplastic when SIRT1 is knocked down stably in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. This phenotype is associated with dysregulated adipocyte metabolism and enhanced inflammation. We also demonstrate that SIRT1 is a key regulator of proliferation in preadipocytes. Quantitative proteomics reveal that the c-Myc pathway is altered to drive enhanced proliferation in SIRT1-silenced 3T3-L1 cells. Moreover, c-Myc is hyperacetylated, levels of p27 are reduced, and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) is activated upon SIRT1 reduction. Remarkably, differentiating SIRT1-silenced preadipocytes exhibit enhanced mitotic clonal expansion accompanied by reduced levels of p27 as well as elevated levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and c-Myc, which is also hyperacetylated. c-Myc activation and enhanced proliferation phenotype are also found to be SIRT1- dependent in proliferating mouse embryonic fibroblasts and differentiating human SW872 preadipocytes. Reducing both SIRT1 and c-Myc expression in 3T3-L1 cells simultaneously does not induce the adipocyte hyperplasia phenotype, confirming that SIRT1 controls adipocyte hyperplasia through c-Myc regulation. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of adipocyte hyperplasia will open new avenues toward understanding obesity. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Published in the U.S.A.

Alsaadi K.,Anti Doping Laboratory Qatar | Voss S.C.,Anti Doping Laboratory Qatar | Kraiem S.,Anti Doping Laboratory Qatar | Alwahaibi A.,Anti Doping Laboratory Qatar | And 9 more authors.
Drug Testing and Analysis | Year: 2015

This study investigated the effect of Ramadan on the haematological and steroid module of the Athletes Biological Passport (ABP) of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Nine healthy physically active subjects were tested in the morning and afternoon for two days before and three days during Ramadan. Sample collection and all analyses were performed according to WADA technical documents. Although there were significant changes in the haemoglobin concentration during Ramadan, especially during the first fasting week, none of the subjects in this study exceeded the individually calculated thresholds of the ABP. No significant effects on testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio were observed but only the afternoon specific gravity (SG) of the urine was elevated. Thus, when urinary steroid concentrations are required, SG corrections need to be performed. The haematological and the steroid module of the ABP can be reliably applied during Ramadan as the observed changes are only marginal. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Al-Rasheid N.,University College London | Gray R.,North London Obesity Surgery Service | Sufi P.,North London Obesity Surgery Service | Marina-Gonzalez N.,University College London | And 4 more authors.
Obesity Surgery | Year: 2014

We determined whether persistent nausea and vomiting (N/V) symptoms following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery is due to elevated systemic glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and leptin in female non-diabetic subjects. Subjects with N/V post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery had significantly elevated fasting GLP-1 levels compared to that with post-operative asymptomatic subjects and to morbidly obese, obese and lean subjects not undergoing surgery. Weight loss, glycaemia, insulin and post-prandial GLP-1 levels were similar in all post-operative subjects. Despite comparable BMI, leptin was significantly lower in symptomatic subjects. Furthermore, leptin secretion from subcutaneous adipose tissue was inhibited by GLP-1 (0.1–1.0 nM; n = 6). Persistent N/V following RYGB surgery is associated with elevated fasting GLP-1, but lower leptin levels. The latter may be a consequence of the direct GLP-1 inhibition of leptin secretion from adipose tissue. © 2014, The Author(s).

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