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Suigen, South Korea

Lim J.H.,Seoul National University | Kim J.-H.,Life Science Randnter | Kim N.,Seoul National University | Lee B.H.,Seoul National University | And 8 more authors.
Gut and Liver | Year: 2014

Background/Aims: The major compounds of Cochinchina momordica seed extract (SK-MS10) include momordica saponins. We report that the gastroprotective effect of SK-MS10 in an ethanol-induced gastric damage rat model is mediated by suppressing proinflammatory cytokines and downregulating cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and the activation of calcitonin gene-related peptide. In this study, we evaluated the gastroprotective effects of SK-MS10 in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric damage rat model. Methods: The pretreatment effect of SK-MS10 was evaluated in the NSAID-induced gastric damage rat model using aspirin, indomethacin, and diclofenac in 7-week-old rats. Gastric damage was evaluated based on the gross ulcer index by gastroenterologists, and the damage area (%) was measured using the MetaMorph 7.0 video image analysis system. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blotting was used to analyze the levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2, cPLA2, and 5-LOX. Results: All NSAIDs induced gastric damage based on the gross ulcer index and damage area (p<0.05). Gastric damage was significantly attenuated by SK-MS10 pretreatment compared with NSAID treatment alone (p<0.05). The SK-MS10 pretreatment group exhibited lower MPO levels than the diclofenac group. The expression of cPLA2 and 5-LOX was decreased by SK-MS10 pretreatment in each of the three NSAID treatment groups. Conclusions: SK-MS10 exhibited a gastroprotective effect against NSAID-induced acute gastric damage in rats. However, its protective mechanism may be different across the three types of NSAID-induced gastric damage models in rats.

Jung K.,Seoul National University | Kim J.-S.,Life Science Randnter | Kim T.-H.,Incheon National University | Kim J.,Seoul National University
Helvetica Chimica Acta | Year: 2013

Enantiomerically pure (+)-(S)-clopidogrel was prepared by solid-phase synthesis using the commercially available Wang resin. This method offers mild reaction conditions and provides the (+)-(S)-clopidogrel in overall 52% yield over six steps and with optical purity of 98.0% ee. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich, Switzerland.

Seo P.J.,Seoul National University | Kim N.,Seoul National University | Kim J.-H.,Life Science Randnter | Lee B.H.,Seoul National University | And 7 more authors.
Gut and Liver | Year: 2012

Background/Aims: Aging gastric mucosa is known to have decreased mucosal defenses and increased susceptibility to injury by nonsteroidal anti-infl ammatory drugs. Depending on the type of nonsteroidal anti-infl ammatory drug (NSAID), the underlying mechanisms and the extent of damage to the stomach or intestine may differ. This study was performed to evaluate the acute gastric damage caused by different doses of indomethacin, diclofenac and aspirin in rats of various ages. Methods: For the acute models, indomethacin (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg), diclofenac (40 or 80 mg/kg) or aspirin (100 mg/kg) was given to 7- and 25-week-old and 1-year-old Sprague-Dawley rats by intragastric gavage. The gross ulcer index, damage area as assessed by imaging, histological index, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) levels were measured after 24 hours. Results: The gross ulcer index and damage area increased with age in the presence of three NSAIDs (p<0.05). The increases in MPO levels induced by diclofenac and aspirin were signifi cantly higher in 1-year-old than 7-week-old rats (p<0.05). cPLA2 expression induced by indomethacin (10 and 40 mg/ kg) was greater in the 1-year-old rats, compared with 7-weekold rats (p<0.05). Conclusions: NSAID-induced acute gastric damage increased in a dose- and age-dependent manner.

Seo J.-S.,Ewha Womans University | Baek I.-S.,Ewha Womans University | Leem Y.-H.,Ewha Womans University | Kim T.-K.,Ewha Womans University | And 4 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2011

SK-PC-B70M, an oleanolic-glycoside saponins fraction extracted from the root of Pulsatilla koreana, carries active ingredient(s) that protects the cytotoxicity induced by Aβ(1-42) in SK-N-SH cells. It was recently demonstrated that SK-PC-B70M improved scopolamine-induced deficits of memory consolidation and spatial working memory in rats, and reduced Aβ levels and plaque deposition in the brains of the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer disease. In the present study, we investigated whether SK-PC-B70M produces helpful effects on the pathology of the G93A-SOD1 transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Administration of SK-PC-B70M (100 or 400 mg/kg/day) from 8 weeks to 16 weeks of age attenuated neurological deficits of G93A-SOD1 mice in several motor-function-related behavioral tests. SK-PC-B70M treatment significantly suppressed the accumulation of the by-products of lipid peroxidation, malonedialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), in the spinal cord of G93A-SOD1 mice. Moreover, histologic analysis stained with cresyl violet or anti-choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) revealed that SK-PC-B70M suppressed neuronal loss in the ventral horn of the spinal cords of G93A-SOD1 mice. These results suggest that SK-PC-B70M affords a beneficial effect on neurologic deficits of G93A-SOD1 ALS mice. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Jung K.,Seoul National University | Jung K.,Life Science Randnter | Chin Y.-W.,Dongguk University | Yoon K.D.,Catholic University of Korea | And 4 more authors.
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology | Year: 2013

Two triterpenoidal saponins were isolated from the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis Sprenger (Cucurbitaceae). Identification of chemical structures has been performed by 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography (GC). One of the saponins is a new gypsogenin glycoside, named as gypsogenin 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl(1→2)-[α-L- rhamnopyranosyl(1→3)]-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (compound 1), which is reported for the first time from natural resources. The other saponin is a quillaic acid glycoside (compound 2), which showed anti-inflammatory activities in RAW 264.7 cells. The mechanistic understanding of anti-inflammatory activities demonstrates that compound 2 inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of nitric oxide and IL-6 via NF-κB pathway. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

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