Life Science R and nter

Seongnam, South Korea

Life Science R and nter

Seongnam, South Korea

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Hyun Yoo H.,Hanyang University | Kon Kim T.,Life Science R and nter | Lee B.-Y.,Life Science R and nter | Kim D.-H.,Inje University
Mass Spectrometry Letters | Year: 2011

The pharmacokinetic properties of S-amlodipine were studied using racemic amlodipine and single S-enantiomer (SK310) administration to rats. Plasma levels of the drug were determined using chiral liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry following solid phase extraction. The stereospecific analysis of amlodipine was performed on an α-acid glycoprotein (AGP) column using a mobile phase comprising 10 mM ammonium acetate (pH 4.0) and propanol at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. This method was used to perform a comparative study of the pharmacokinetics of amlodipine and SK310. The results revealed that the pharmacokinetic profile of S-amlodipine after the administration of SK310 was comparable to that following the administration of the racemic mixture.

Jo H.J.,Seoul National University | Kim N.,Seoul National University | Nam R.H.,Seoul National University | Kang J.M.,Seoul National University | And 10 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology | Year: 2014

Little is known about the time course of aging on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) of colon. The aim of this study was to investigate the change of morphology, ICC, and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-immunoreactive cells in the aged rat. The proximal colon of 344 Fischer rats at four different ages (6, 31, 74 wk, and 2 yr) were studied. The immunoreactivity of c-Kit, nNOS, anti-protein gene product 9.5, and synaptophysin were counted after immunohistochemistry. The c-kit, stem cell factor (ligand of Kit), and nNOS mRNA were measured by real-time PCR. c-Kit and nNOS protein were assessed by Western blot. Isovolumetric contractile force measurement and electrical field stimulation (EFS) were conducted. The area of intramuscular fat deposition significantly increased with age after 31 wk. c-Kit-immunoreactive ICC and nNOS-immunoreactive neurons and nerve fibers significantly declined with age. mRNA and protein expression of c-kit and nNOS decreased with aging. The functional study showed that the spontaneous contractility was decreased in aged rat, whereas EFS responses in the presence of atropine and L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester were increased in aged rat. In conclusion, the decrease of proportion of proper smooth muscle, the density of ICC and nNOS-immunoreactive neuronal fibers, and the number of nNOS-immunoreactive neurons during the aging process may explain the aging-associated colonic dysmotility. © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

Chae H.-S.,Dongguk University | Yoo H.,Life Science R and nter | Kim Y.-M.,Dongguk University | Choi Y.H.,Dongguk University | And 2 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2016

The anti-inflammatory effects and molecular mechanism of 6,8-diprenyl-7,4′-dihydroxyflavanone (DDF), one of the flavanones found in Sophora tonkinensis, were assessed in vitro through macrophage-mediated inflammation in the present study. The anti-inflammatory effects of DDF were not previously reported. DDF inhibited the production of nitric oxide and the expression of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6. Furthermore, the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages was suppressed by treatment with DDF. Therefore, DDF demonstrated potentially anti-inflammatory effects via the blockade of NF-κB and ERK activation in macrophages. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

Yoo H.,Seoul National University | Ryu K.H.,Life Science R and nter | Bae S.K.,Catholic University of Korea | Kim J.,Seoul National University
Journal of Separation Science | Year: 2014

A new liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of trifolirhizin, (-)-maackiain, (-)-sophoranone, and 2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,6-methylenedioxybenzofuran from Sophora tonkinensis in rat plasma using chlorpropamide as an internal standard. Plasma samples (50 μL) were prepared using a simple deproteinization procedure with 150 μL of acetonitrile containing 100 ng/mL of chlorpropamide. Chromatographic separation was carried out on an Acclaim RSLC120 C18 column (2.1 × 100 mm, 2.2 μm) using a gradient elution consisting of 7.5 mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid (0.4 mL/min flow rate, 7.0 min total run time). The detection and quantitation of all analytes were performed in selected reaction monitoring mode under both positive and negative electrospray ionization. This assay was linear over concentration ranges of 50-5000 ng/mL (trifolirhizin), 25-2500 ng/mL ((-)-maackiain), 5-250 ng/mL ((-)-sophoranone), and 1-250 ng/mL 2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,6-methylenedioxybenzofuran) with a lower limit of quantification of 50, 25, 5, and 1 ng/mL for trifolirhizin, (-)-maackiain, (-)-sophoranone, and 2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,6-methylenedioxybenzofuran, respectively. All the validation data, including the specificity, precision, accuracy, recovery, and stability conformed to the acceptance requirements. The results indicated that the developed method is sufficiently reliable for the pharmacokinetic study of the analytes following oral administration of Sophora tonkinensis extract in rats. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Ryu K.H.,Life Science R and nter | Ryu K.H.,Seoul National University | Rhee H.I.,Life Science R and nter | Kim J.H.,Life Science R and nter | And 7 more authors.
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010

The parenteral route has many merits over the oral route, including greater predictability, reproducibility of absorption, and rapid drug action, but injectable phytomedicines are uncommon due to protein precipitating tannin and hemolytic saponin components. In this study, in an effort to develop a safe injectable analgesic phytomedicine, we prepared a tannin and saponin-free Lonicera japonica extract, SKLJI, through fractionation and column purification, and evaluated its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in in vivo experimental models of inflammation and pain. The removal of tannin and saponin resulted in loganin and sweroside-enriched SKLJI and it showed reduced hemolysis and protein precipitation. In efficacy tests, SKLJI inhibited croton oil-and arachidonic acidinduced ear edema, acetic acid-induced writhing, and carrageenan-induced rat hind paw hyperalgesia. Inhibition of cylcooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and 5-lipoxyfenase (5-LO) activities by SKLJI appeared to be the mechanism underlying anti-inflammatory and analgesic efficacy. Loganin and sweroside also showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, suggesting that they might be active principles in the efficacy of SKLJI. These results suggest that SKLJI is a viable candidate for a new antiinflammatory and analgesic phytomedicine that can be administered by the parenteral route.

Kang J.M.,Seoul National University | Kim N.,Seoul National University | Kim B.,Life Science R and nter | Kim J.-H.,Life Science R and nter | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Korean Medical Science | Year: 2010

Cochinchina momordica seed is the dried ripe seed of Momordica cochinchinensis, a perennial vine. The antiulcer effect of an extract from cochinchina momordica seeds (SK-MS10) was evaluated in a rat model of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. Gastric ulcers were produced by subserosal injection of acetic acid. SK-MS10 (200 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered orally once per day for 14 days after the acetic acid injection. The stomach was removed and the ulcer size measured at day 7 and 14 of the treatment. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was assessed by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In addition, the microvasculature density (MVD) adjacent to the ulcer margin was examined by immunohistochemistry. The treatment with SK-MS10 for 7 and 14 days significantly accelerated ulcer healing and increased the expression of mRNA (at day 7) as well as VEGF protein (at day 14) compared to the vehicle-treated rats. The MVD for factor VIII was also higher in the SK-MS10 treatment group compared to the vehicle-treated rats; however, these differences were not statistically significant. These results suggest that SK-MS10 treatment accelerates the healing of gastric ulcers via upregulation of VEGF and angiogenesis in an acetic acid rat model. © 2010 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

Kang J.M.,Seoul National University | Kim N.,Seoul National University | Kim J.-H.,Life Science R and nter | Oh E.,Life Science R and nter | And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology | Year: 2010

Aging changes in the stomach lead to a decreased capacity for tissue repair in response to gastric acid. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism associated with the increased susceptibility to injury of aging mucosa including reactive oxygen species (5), apoptosis, angiogenesis, and sensory neuron activity. Fischer 344 rats at four different ages (6, 31, 74 wk, and 2 yr of age) were studied. The connective tissue indicators [salt-soluble collagen and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG)], lipid hydroperoxide (LPO), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and hexosamine were assessed. We also evaluated the expression of early growth response-1 (Egr-1), phosphatase and tension homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), caspase-9 (index of apoptosis), VEGF (index of angiogenesis), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, index of sensory neurons), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). The histological connective tissue area in the lower part of rat gastric mucosa increased with aging, with increase of salt-soluble collagen and sGAG. LPO and MPO in old rats were significantly greater than in the young rats, whereas hexosamine was significantly reduced. The old gastric mucosa had increased expression of Egr-1, PTEN, and caspase-9, whereas the VEGF, CGRP, and nNOS expression were significantly reduced. These results indicate that the lower part of rat gastric mucosa was found to be replaced by connective tissue with accumulation of oxidative products with aging. In addition, impairment of apoptosis, angiogenesis, and sensory neuron activity via the activation of Egr-1 and PTEN might increase the susceptibility of gastric mucosa to injury during aging. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society.

Choi C.H.,Hanyang University | Kim T.-H.,Hanyang University | Sung Y.-K.,Hanyang University | Choi C.-B.,Hanyang University | And 3 more authors.
Korean Journal of Internal Medicine | Year: 2014

Background/Aims: SKI306X, a mixed extract of three herbs, Clematis mandshurica (CM), Prunella vulgaris (PV), and Trichosanthes kirilowii (TK), is chondroprotective in animal models of osteoarthritis (OA). The objectives of this study were to investigate its effect on interleukin (IL)-1β-induced degradation of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and the basis of its action in human OA cartilage, as well as to screen for the presence of inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS)-4 in SKI306X and its component herbs, as well as in fractions from SKI306X.Methods: Human OA chondrocytes and cartilage explants were obtained during total knee replacements and incubated with IL-1β ± oncostatin M with or without SKI306X or its component herb extracts. GAG degradation was assayed in cartilage explants using a commercial kit. Expression of genes involved in cartilage destruction was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction using chondrocyte RNA. SKI306X was fractionated by preparative liquid chromatography to test for the presence of inhibitors of MMP-13 and ADAMTS-4.Results: SKI306X and PV inhibited IL-1β-induced GAG release from cartilage explants, and SKI306X, CM, PV, and TK inhibited IL-1β-induced MMP gene expression. Unexpectedly, SKI306X greatly stimulated IL-1β + oncostatin M-induced ADAMTS-4 gene expression, probably due to its TK component. Some fractions of SKI306X also inhibited ADAMTS-4 activity.Conclusions: SKI306X and its herbal components inhibit GAG degradation and catabolic gene expression in human OA chondrocytes and cartilage explants. SKI306X likely also contains one or more ADAMTS-4 inhibitor. © 2014 The Korean Association of Internal Medicine.

Kim T.K.,Life Science R and nter | Kim I.S.,Hanyang University | Hong S.H.,Life Science R and nter | Choi Y.K.,Research South, Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2013

In this study, we describe and validate a rapid and sensitive method for quantitation of dapoxetine in rat plasma by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MS/MS). Plasma samples were prepared by protein precipitation with acetonitrile, and sildenafil was used as an internal standard (IS). The mobile phase consisted of 0.5% formic acid/acetonitrile (60:40, v/v); a C18 reversed-phase column (2.0×50mm, 1.7μm) was used for chromatographic separation. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used in the positive ion mode for mass spectrometric detection. The calibration curve for dapoxetine was linear (r2=0.999) in the concentration range of 1-500ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision was between 3.8% and 8.3%, and the intra- and inter-day accuracy was between 101.1% and 109.0%. Dapoxetine was found to be stable in various conditions with the recoveries>87.0% (RSD <7.2%). The method was found to be specific, precise, and accurate, and no matrix effect was observed. Our results suggest that this method can be successfully applied in pharmacokinetic studies of dapoxetine in rat plasma. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Hwang Y.Y.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Hwang Y.Y.,Life Science R and nter | Shin D.C.,Life Science R and nter | Nam Y.S.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Cho B.-K.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry | Year: 2012

β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) is widely used to increase the stability, solubility, and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs because of the appropriate size of its cavity. Sibutramine is a neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitor that has been investigated as an oral anorexiant. Here we report the complexation of sibutramine base with β-CD and the stability, dissolution, and pharmacokinetic properties of the sibutramine/CD complex. The formation of sibutramine/β-CD inclusion complexes is confirmed using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. The thermal and photochemical stability of sibutramine is significantly improved by the complexation with β-CD, and the pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g., the plasma concentration, area under the curve, and maximum concentration of two active metabolites) for humans are comparable with those of the commercialized standard product (Reductil ®). Our study suggests that sibutramine/β-CD complexation can be of great use to increase the stability and biological efficacy of sibutramine base. © 2012 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry.

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