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Tsagareli M.G.,Life Science Research Center
Journal of the History of the Neurosciences | Year: 2012

This article is dedicated to one of the outstanding scientists of the nineteenth century: Ivane Tarkhnishvili (Tarchanoff), a Russian physiologist of Georgian origin who graduated from the St. Petersburg Medico-Surgical Academy and worked under the supervision of the founder of Russian physiology, Ivan Sechenov. Among his numerous contributions was the discovery of the skin galvanic reflex; however, Tarkhnishvili's most significant contribution was the discovery of the influence of X-rays on the central nervous system, animal behavior, the heart and circulation, and embryonic development. Indeed, these works have given rise to a new field in science (radiobiology). © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Park J.-H.,University of Ulsan | Ryu S.-H.,University of Ulsan | Choi E.K.,University of Ulsan | Ahn S.D.,University of Ulsan | And 3 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2015

Here we demonstrated that SKI2162, a small-molecule inhibitor of the TGF-ß type I receptor (ALK5), prevented radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) in mice. SKI2162 inhibited phosphorylation of Smad and induction of RIF-related genes in vitro. In RIF a mouse model, SKI2162 reduced late skin reactions and leg-contracture without jeopardizing the acute skin reaction. Irradiation of mouse tissue increased COL1A2 mRNA levels, and topical administration of SKI2162 significantly inhibited this effect. Thus, these findings support that SKI2162 has potential value as novel RIF-protective agent, and could be candidate for clinical trials. Source

The character of changes of open field behavior was not studied extensively in animal model of depression with deficiency of brain monoamine/serotonin content and obtained results are controversial. Both, enhancement and invariability of locomotor activity has been obtained. Additional investigation of this question is motivated also by insufficient study of exploratory and emotional behaviors in animal model of depression of this type. Animal model of depression was developed by chronic administration of Clomipramine and/or Melipramine in rat pups from postnatal day 7 (P7) and/or 14 (P14) to P21 and/or P28, respectively. Studies of open field behavior were started in adult age rats i.e. 8-12 weeks after the end of treatment. Control animals were the same age old. Two-week period of postnatal development starting at the P7 and/or P14 appeared equally sensitive to early antidepressant treatment. Modeled animals exhibited significant increase of horizontal locomotor activity. Frequency of center entrance and the time of staying in the center of open field were increased significantly indicating that animal models of depression can not percept really the level of stressfulness of novel surroundings. All of these changes indicate also to the significant level of exploratory behavior in modeled animals. Postnatal exposure of rat pups to Clomipramine or Melipramine produces significant increase of locomotor activity but dos not induces behavioral 'despair' or "refractory loss of interest" at mature age. Source

Nozadze I.,Life Science Research Center
Georgian medical news | Year: 2011

Our recent investigations have shown that microinjection of three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) analgin, ketorolac and xefocam into the central nucleus of amygdala produce tolerance to these drugs and cross-tolerance to morphine. We have observed the same phenomenon in midbrain periaqueductal grey matter and nucleus raphe magnus. The medullar nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) is one of important parts of CNS circuit that controls nociceptive transmission at the level of spinal cord. It is functionally involved in descending pain modulation, and mainly consists of serotoninergic neurons. The aim of this study was to examine opioid sensitivity of NSAIDs action in NRM of male rats. For this purpose 30 minutes later of NSAIDs administrations we microinjected μ-opioid antagonist naloxone and tested rats for tail flick and hot plate latencies. Our investigation showed that microinjection of naloxone in NRM significantly decreased antinociceptive effects of NSAIDs at the first day in the TF and HP latencies. At the second day, naloxone generally had trend effects in both TF and HP tests. These results strongly support the suggestion on endogenous opioid involvement in NSAIDs antinociception and tolerance. On the other hand, our evidence confirms once more that NRM is involved in the descending pain control circuit inhibiting spinal nocifensive reflexes. Source

Chkhartishvili E.,Life Science Research Center
Georgian medical news | Year: 2011

Animal model of depression was developed by means of chronic exposure of rat pups to anticholinergic drugs (Atropine, Scopolamine) during the early life period from postnatal day 7 (P7) and/or 14 (P14) to P21 and/or P28, respectively. Such procedure resulted in lasting behavioral changes that were evident long after drug discontinuation and persisted at mature age (2-3 month period). Behavioral changes included most indices of open field behavior. Modeled animals exhibited significant depression of locomotor activity certified by sharp reduction of the number of crossed squares, rising of a head and vertical standings. Grooming behavior was also significantly decreased. Frequency of center entrance and the time of staying in the center of open field were sharply shortened. Modeled animals exhibited complete loss of exploratory motivation which wasn't related to the enhancement of fear emotion so far as values of incidence of urination and defecation remained unchangeable. These findings indicate that postnatal exposure of rat pups to Atropine and/or Scopolamine induces lasting behavioral "despai"' or "refractory loss of interest" at mature age. In sum animal model of depression which are characterized by super sensitivity of brain muscarinic cholinergic system exhibit more depressed behavioral items in open field than other types of animal models of depression. These data imply the preference of muscarinic cholinergic super sensitivity for the development of depressive state and therefore they are very significant for both basic science and clinical research issues. Source

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