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Adomaitis T.,Lietuvos Agrariniu ir Misku Mokslu Centro Agrocheminiu Tyrimu Laboratorija | Adomaitis T.,Lithuanian Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry | Mazvila J.,Lietuvos Agrariniu ir Misku Mokslu Centro Agrocheminiu Tyrimu Laboratorija | Mazvila J.,Lithuanian Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry | And 10 more authors.
Zemdirbyste | Year: 2010

This paper presents the results from a long-term crop rotation experiment established in 1971, (lysimeters were installed in 1976) in Central Lithuania (in Skemiai of Radviliskis districts) on a morainic sandy loamy Epicalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol {CMg-n-w-cap). The effect of regular fertilisation with different NPK fertilisers in a crop rotation (winter wheat, sugar beet, spring barley, spring rape, annual and perennial grasses) on the amount of PO4 3-, SO4 2- and Cl - compounds in lysimeter water (sampled at 40 and 80 cm depths) was investigated. The data averaged over 33 years (1976-2008) obtained from the long term studies on the impact of mineral fertilisers on the migration of anions, fertilisation of crops with 96 kg ha-1 rate of phosphorus on the background of nitrogen and potassium fertilisers resulted in an increase of phosphate concentration in the water of lysimeters installed at 40 cm depth by 1.45 mg l-1 (8.6 times), and in the case of fertilisation with 192 kg ha-1 rate -by 2.73 mg l-1 (15.2 times). Phosphate concentration in the water of lysimeters installed at 40 cm depth in not fertilised plots was 0.15-0.23 mg l-1. Average annual fertilisation with 96 and 192 kg ha-1 P2O5 on the background of nitrogen and potassium fertilisers resulted in phosphate migration losses of app. 2 and 4 kg ha-1, which is nearly 2% of the fertilisers applied. Only 0.2 kg ha-1 of phosphates were leached from the soil of not fertilised plots. Average sulphate (SO4 2-) concentration in the water of lysimeters installed at 40 cm depth in the plots not fertilised with sulphur-containing phosphorus fertilisers (N111,222P 0K96,192) was 31-32 mg l-1, in the plots where moderate (N111P96K96) and high (N 222P192K192) rates were applied the concentration of sulphates increased by 96 and 189 mg l-1, respectively (4.1 and 6.9 times). Average annual fertilisation with superphosphate rates containing 68.6 kg of sulphur (S) on the background of nitrogen and potassium fertilisers resulted in a loss of 162 kg ha-1 SO4 2- from the 0-40 cm soil layer, in the plots where double S rate was applied, the loss of sulphates increased to 282 and in not fertilised plots only app. 48 kg ha-1 of sulphates were leached. Chloride (Cl-) concentration in the water of lysimeters installed at 40 cm depth in the plots not fertilised with chlorine-containing potassium fertilisers (N111,222P96,192K0) was 16-24 mg l-1, in the plots where N111P96K96 and N228P192K192 annual rates were applied - 43 and 85 mg l-1. Average annual fertilisation with potassium chloride rates containing app. 72 kg of chlorine (Cl-) on the background of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisers resulted in a loss of app. 55 kg ha -1 Cl- from the 0-40 cm soil layer, in the plots where 144 kg ha-1 of chlorine were applied - 108 kg ha-1, and in not fertilised plots only app. 15 kg ha-1. Leaching rates of sulphates were the highest, followed by chlorides, while those of phosphates were the lowest. Application of superphosphate increased phosphate (PO 4 3-) leaching up to 15.2 times and sulphate (SO 4 2-) leaching up to 6.9 times. The application of potassium chloride increased the chloride (Cl-) leaching up to 7 times. The concentration of phosphates in the water of lysimeters installed at 80 cm depth, when compared to that of the lysimeters installed at 40 cm depth, was about 1.5-2.5 times lower. As for sulphates as well as chlorides, the concentrations were nearly the same.

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