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Fraser G.W.,University of Leicester | Carpenter J.D.,University of Leicester | Rothery D.A.,Open University Milton Keynes | Pearson J.F.,University of Leicester | And 49 more authors.
Planetary and Space Science | Year: 2010

The Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (MIXS) on the BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) will measure fluorescent X-ray emission from the surface of Mercury in the energy range 0.5-7.5 keV, which is induced by incident solar X-rays and solar wind electrons and protons. These X-rays will reveal the elemental composition of the surface of Mercury and aid the determination of the planet's evolution. MIXS is a two component instrument. A collimated channel (MIXS-C) provides measurements on scales of 70-270 km, sufficient to separate the major Mercurian terrains. A second channel (MIXS-T) is the first imaging X-ray telescope for planetary remote sensing and will make measurements on spatial scales of less than 10 km for major elements during solar flares, sufficient to isolate surface landforms, such as craters and their internal structures. The spatial resolution achieved by MIXS-T is made possible by novel, low mass microchannel plate X-ray optics, in a Wolter type I optical geometry. MIXS measurements of surface elemental composition will help determine rock types, the evolution of the surface and ultimately a probable formation process for the planet. In this paper we present MIXS and its predicted performance at Mercury as well as discussing the role that MIXS measurements will play in answering the major questions about Mercury. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Jofre M.,ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences | Gardelein A.,ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences | Anzolin G.,ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences | Amaya W.,Multimedia University | And 18 more authors.
Optics Express | Year: 2011

A novel integrated optical source capable of emitting faint pulses with different polarization states and with different intensity levels at 100 MHz has been developed. The source relies on a single laser diode followed by four semiconductor optical amplifiers and thin film polarizers, connected through a fiber network. The use of a single laser ensures high level of indistinguishability in time and spectrum of the pulses for the four different polarizations and three different levels of intensity. The applicability of the source is demonstrated in the lab through a free space quantum key distribution experiment which makes use of the decoy state BB84 protocol. We achieved a lower bound secure key rate of the order of 3.64 Mbps and a quantum bit error ratio as low as 1.14×10-2 while the lower bound secure key rate became 187 bps for an equivalent attenuation of 35 dB. To our knowledge, this is the fastest polarization encoded QKD system which has been reported so far. The performance, reduced size, low power consumption and the fact that the components used can be space qualified make the source particularly suitable for secure satellite communication. © 2011 Optical Society of America.


Raso J.M.,LIDAX | Serrano J.,LIDAX | Argelaguet H.,LIDAX | Lamensans M.,LIDAX | And 7 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

The IACAT (IAC Atmosphere and Telescope) Simulator is an Optical Ground Support Equipment which simulates atmospheric turbulence and reproduces the performance of three very different telescopes: GTC and WHT, located at the Observatorio Del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma (Canary Islands), and OGS which is located at the Observatorio Del Teide in Tenerife (Canary Islands). Its mission is to provide Scientists with the same measurement conditions as the real telescope but in a friendly laboratory environment, to assist in the development of new adaptive optics methods based on FPGAs. The most important telescope characteristics are simulated, such as f number, pupil size and position, magnification, central obscuration, etc. Up to 13 stellar objects can be created, individually or as binary stars with specific angular separations down to miliarcseconds. For the atmosphere simulation, it allows the creation of three different turbulence layers concurrently with different altitude and wind speed ranges. © 2010 SPIE.


Perez-Diaz J.-L.,Charles III University of Madrid | Garcia-Prada J.C.,Charles III University of Madrid | Diez-Jimenez E.,Charles III University of Madrid | Valiente-Blanco I.,Charles III University of Madrid | And 7 more authors.
Mechanism and Machine Theory | Year: 2012

A non-contact linear slider based on stable superconducting magnetic levitation with a long permanent magnet as a slider and two fixed superconducting disks which define the slide way has been designed, built and tested. The slider can be moved stably along a stroke of ± 11.5 mm by supplying a low current in a coil located at the end of the stroke while the levitation remains stable providing a reliable mechanism for linear displacement in a cryogenic environment. The response is linear with a sensitivity of 52 ± 2 μm/mA for displacements lower than 6 mm. Run out, pitch, yaw and roll have been measured demonstrating an overall good performance. In all cases the measured hysteresis was lower than 250 μm and the measured run out was also lower than 250 μm both for Y and Z axis. Roll and yaw were always below 300 μrad, that is one order of magnitude lower than the pitch (4500 μrad). © 2011 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.


Perez-Diaz J.L.,Charles III University of Madrid | Valiente-Blanco I.,Charles III University of Madrid | Diez-Jimenez E.,Charles III University of Madrid | Sanchez-Garcia-casarrubios J.,Charles III University of Madrid | And 7 more authors.
ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) | Year: 2013

There is an increasing demand of nanotechnology and nano-devices in microelectronics, optics, biomedical and precision engineering industries. In this context, a wide range of applications require micrometer/nanometer positioning within a long range. Ultra precision manufacturing and inspection systems in micro-automating semiconductor fabrication, nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machines (NPM-Machine), development of MEMS and NEMS, copying machines, stepper stages for photolithography, small-scale measuring machines (CMMs) for large area scanning or surface imaging in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) are a few examples of these applications. In some applications, cryogenic environments (temperatures below 120 K) are a desirable or mandatory condition. The sensitivity of a large number of sensors is greatly increased when they are at cryogenics temperatures, like for example, those required for far infrared interferometer spectroscopy. The operating conditions in these environments include very low temperatures but also high vacuum. In this context, it is challenging for mechanisms to overcome all the tribological problems associated with these conditions. In addition very low energy consumption is also desirable in cryogenic environments. The invention here presented is a contactless linear slider that gets benefit of superconducting magnetic levitation to obtain a nanometer resolution within a long stroke (∼ 15 mm), minimizing run-outs of the slider (in the micron scale). Moreover, due to self-stable levitation and guidance of the slider, the complexity of the control is significantly reduced and the power consumption minimized (of the order of mW). The linear slider can be divided in two subsystems: the guidance system and the actuating system. The guidance system is composed of a static guideline, made of two superconducting disks and a slider composed of a long permanent magnet. Due to the high translational symmetry of the magnetic field generated by the PM, a contactless sliding kinematic pair is established between the PM and the superconductors in the sliding DoF. Thus, the slider is able to be moved in the sliding direction with very low resistance. However, greater restoring forces appear if the PM is moved in any other direction. Due to the lack of contact between the moving parts is also suitable for operation in clean-room applications, like in semiconductor manufacturing industry. Ultimately, the device was designed, built and tested in a relevant cryogenic environment (15 K and high vacuum) and the results introduced and discussed. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.


Serrano-Tellez J.,LIDAX | Romera-Juarez F.,LIDAX | Gonzalez-de-Maria D.,LIDAX | Lamensans M.,LIDAX | And 5 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

The instrumentation of many space missions requires operation in cryogenic temperatures. In all the cases, the use of mechanisms in this environment is a matter of concern, especially when long lifetime is required. With the aim of removing lifetime concerns and to benefit from the cryogenic environment, a cryogenic contactless linear mechanism has been developed. It is based on the levitation of a permanent magnet over superconductor disks. The mechanism has been designed, built, and tested to assess the performances of such technology. The levitation system solves the mechanical contact problems due to cold-welding effects, material degradation by fatigue, wearing, backlash, lubrication...etc, at cryogenic temperatures. In fact, the lower is the temperature the better the superconductor levitation systems work. The mechanism provides a wide stroke (18mm) and high resolution motion (1μm), where position is controlled by changing the magnetic field of its environment using electric-magnets. During the motion, the moving part of the mechanism levitates supported by the magnetic interaction with the high temperature type II superconductors after reaching the superconductor state down to 90K. This paper describes the results of the complete levitation system development, including extensive cryogenic testing to measure optically the motion range, resolution, run-outs and rotations in order to characterize the levitation mechanism and to verify its performance in a cryogenic environment. © 2012 SPIE.


Gonzalo R.Z.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Tomas B.D.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Carmen P.S.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Rene R.G.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | And 6 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

A LED based illumination system in which five Galilean collimation systems have been used is reported on. It is part of a turbulence simulator for the evaluation of on ground telescopes instrumentation developed by INTA (optics) and LIDAX (opto-mechanics) for the IAC called IACATS. The illumination requirements (some visible and infrared lines) allow the use of five different LEDs (red, green, blue and two infrareds). In order to optimize the illumination level of each wavelength, a Galilean collimating optical configuration was constructed for each wavelength channel. The IACATS instrument simulates a scene consisting of a set of different binary stars simulating the required angular separation between them, ant their spectral characteristics. As a result, a visible and infrared multi-spectral illumination system has been integrated as a part of the turbulence simulator, and the features (opto-mechanical) and illumination characteristics are described in the following lines. ©2010 SPIE'.


Gonzalo R.Z.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Tomas B.D.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Carmen P.S.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Antonio S.R.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

IACATS is an atmospheric turbulence, stars and telescope simulator for the evaluation of on ground telescopes instrumentation developed by INTA (optics) and LIDAX (opto-mechanics) for the IAC (Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias). Three telescopes have been simulated, matching the f number, focal plane, and optical interface of the actual telescopes. An optical breadboard was designed and built containing the required opto-mechanics for simulating the telescopes, and various levels of turbulence required. In addition to the telescope simulator optics, a set of three phase plates have been procured and conveniently combined in order to reproduce the atmospheric turbulence required by the IAC. A wave front sensor has been also included in order to evaluate the deformation that the phase plates, or the simulated turbulence, produce in the wave front coming from the illumination system and star simulator. Finally, a specific illumination system was developed including different working wavelengths in order to fulfil the requirements. The description of the illumination system itself has been done in a separate publication.. In the following lines, the characteristics of the IACATS instrument as well as the results obtained from the AIV (Assembly and Integration Verification) process are reported on. ©2010 SPIE.


Serrano J.,LIDAX | Raso J.M.,LIDAX | De Maria D.G.,LIDAX | Vilaseca H.A.,LIDAX | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

The Cryogenic Submicron Linear Actuator (CSA) is a medium range (±5 mm) submicron resolution linear actuator suitable to be used at cryogenic temperature (12K). The unit has been developed for fine positioning use. The unit is based on classic motor-gear concept with nut and screw; different materials and lubrications have been tested for the same design configuration to compare performances. Load capability is above 20N. This paper describes main design features, results of different lubrications tested, tested performances, and main lessons learned. © 2010 SPIE.


Perez-Diaz J.-L.,Charles III University of Madrid | Garcia-Prada J.C.,Charles III University of Madrid | Valiente-Blanco I.,Charles III University of Madrid | Diez-Jimenez E.,Charles III University of Madrid | And 5 more authors.
Mechanisms and Machine Science | Year: 2013

A non-contact linear mechanism based on stable superconducting magnetic levitation with a long permanent magnet as a slider and two fixed superconducting disks which define the slide way has been designed, built and tested. The slider can be moved stably along a stroke of 11.5mm by supplying a low current in the coils located at the end of the stroke. The levitation remains stable thanks to the superconductor disks providing a reliable mechanism for linear displacement in a cryogenic environment. The response is linear with a sensitivity of 522 μm/mA for displacements lower than 6 mm. Pitch, yaw and roll have been measured demonstrating an overall good performance. Roll and yaw were always below 300 μ rad, that is one order of magnitude lower than the pitch (4,500 μrad). A decrease of the pitch has been obtained by modifying some geometrical parameters of the mechanism. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013.

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