Benghazi, Libya

The Libyan International Medical University is a private university established in Benghazi, Libya, with the purpose of teaching medicine. It is the first private medical university in Libya. It is also Libya's only accredited private medical university.Its doors were opened to enrolled students on October 15, 2007. According to university references, over 200 students had enrolled under its faculties: Faculty of Basic Medical science Faculty of Medicine Faculty of Dentistry Faculty of Pharmacy Faculty of Information Technology Faculty of NursingOne of the university's major points is its focus on international partnerships and meeting the level of other international medical teaching institutes. The teaching policy emulates those of many established universities and is mainly problem-based learning. The National Quality Assurance committee of Libya visited all the universities to evaluate them on two bases: facilities and program. The Libyan International Medical University attained a very advanced position in this evaluation in both aspects.The Libyan Ministry of Health granted LIMU students the privilege of training at the national health care centers and hospitals. Wikipedia.


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Bodalal Z.,Libyan International Medical University | Bendardaf R.,Benghazi Medical Center | Ambarek M.,Libyan International Medical University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

This paper aims to observe and to study the trends of road traffic accidents (RTA's) for the past ten years in Benghazi - Libya. A retrospective analysis was done using the patient records of Al-Jalaa hospital (the main trauma center in Benghazi) from over 21,753 RTA cases. The annual data were compared to each other and changes of trends were observed. RTA's represented an increasing percentage of Al-Jalaa's case load across the years. Around 41% of these cases needed to undergo surgery. The younger age group (20-29 years of age) formed the majority of cases while there was a trend towards an increasing average age of patients involved in an accident. Male patients were found to be younger than their female counterparts. Males comprised 81.5% while females formed 18.5% of RTA patients. In terms of inpatient duration, most patients stayed in the hospital for less than 1 week. Vehicle occupants (drivers and passengers) were admitted more often than pedestrians. There was a trend across the years towards an increased involvement of vehicle occupants and decrease in the proportion of pedestrians that had to be hospitalized. Additionally, there was a decrease in the fatalities of pedestrians. Overall, most RTA patients were discharged and made to follow-up in outpatient clinics however there was a startling trend towards increased LAMA and absconded patients. There were both encouraging findings as well as points that needed further emphasis and action. Public education, life support training and diversification of transport (apart from the use of the roads) should be looked into, as possible means of improving the current situation. © 2012 Bodalal et al.


Bodalal Z.,Libyan International Medical University | Azzuz R.,Benghazi Medical Center | Bendardaf R.,University of Sharjah
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

AIM: To study the pattern of cancer incidence and determine the incidence rates in Eastern Libya (for the first time in a decade). METHODS: A hospital-based registry of cancer patients was formed using records from the primary oncology center in eastern Libya - focusing on those diagnosed in the year 2012. RESULTS: The most common malignancies in men were cancers of the colon (22.3%, n = 90), lung (20.3%, n = 82), prostate (16.1%, n = 65), pancreas (4.2%, n = 17) and liver (4.2%, n = 17). For women, they were found to be cancers of the breast (41.5%, n = 213), colon (16.4%, n = 84), uterus (8%, n = 41), ovary (5.5%, n = 28) and pancreas (3.1%, n = 16). Additionally age-standardized rates (ASR) were determined for Libya. The different cities and towns in eastern Libya were compared for any variation. The city of Beida in particular was found to have a remarkably high incidence of gastric cancer. The different findings were discussed and comparisons were made with past literature as well as the incidence rates for neighbouring countries. The incidence rates given for the eastern region showed differences from previously reported values (i.e., the rate of colon cancer was the highest in North Africa whereas other malignancies occurred less frequently). Potential explanations for the urban-rural difference as well as the difference in incidence rates were put forth. The significance of this study is that it establishes a baseline of cancer incidence which should be the backbone for any future national cancer plan in Libya. CONCLUSION: Proper surveillance programs need to be in place and healthcare policy should be adjusted to take into account the more prevalent and pressing cancers in society. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.


Korkeila E.A.,University of Turku | Syrjanen K.,University of Turku | Bendardaf R.,University of Turku | Bendardaf R.,Libyan International Medical University | And 4 more authors.
Human Pathology | Year: 2011

The purpose of this study was to assess the value of ezrin expression as a predictor of disease outcome in rectal cancer treated by preoperative radio- or chemoradiotherapy. Operative samples from 176 rectal cancer patients and 76 diagnostic preoperative biopsies from the same cohort were analyzed for ezrin expression using immunohistochemistry. The patients had received short- (n = 76) or long-course radiotherapy with (n = 36) or without chemotherapy (n = 10) or no treatment preoperatively (n = 54). The direct effect of radiation on ezrin expression was studied in cultured cells by Western blot analysis. The biopsies and respective operative samples were significantly different (κ = -0.010 for 4-tier scoring and κ = 0.028 for dichotomized scoring) in their ezrin expression. Most preoperative biopsies (61/76, 80%) had negative/weak ezrin expression compared with 56% (43/76) of the corresponding operative samples. After preoperative treatment, negative expression in the biopsies of 18 (82%) of 22 patients turned positive, whereas positive expression in 6 (11%) of 54 biopsies turned negative in the operative samples. In univariate analysis, disease-free survival and disease-specific survival were significantly longer (P = .027 and P = .002) when ezrin expression in the preoperative biopsy was negative/weak compared with moderate/strong expression. Such prognostic association was lost in the radiated operative specimens. In multivariate regression model, ezrin was not a predictor of disease-free survival. No direct effect of radiation on ezrin expression was seen in vitro. In conclusion, radiotherapy increases ezrin expression in rectal cancer. In pretreatment biopsies, negative/weak ezrin expression correlates with favorable disease outcome, suggesting that ezrin expression modulates tumor aggressiveness and/or response to treatment. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Garoushi S.,University of Turku | Garoushi S.,Libyan International Medical University | Sailynoja E.,Stick Technology Ltd. | Vallittu P.K.,University of Turku | Lassila L.,University of Turku
Dental Materials | Year: 2013

Objectives To determine the physical properties and curing depth of a new short fiber composite intended for posterior large restorations (everX Posterior) in comparison to different commercial posterior composites (Alert, TetricEvoCeram Bulk Fill, Voco X-tra base, SDR, Venus Bulk Fill, SonicFill, Filtek Bulk Fill, Filtek Superme, and Filtek Z250). In addition, length of fiber fillers of composite XENIUS base compared to the previously introduced composite Alert has been measured. Materials and methods The following properties were examined according to ISO standard 4049: flexural strength, flexural modulus, fracture toughness, polymerization shrinkage and depth of cure. The mean and standard deviation were determined and all results were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance ANOVA (a = 0.05). Results XENIUS base composite exhibited the highest fracture toughness (4.6 MPa m 1/2) and flexural strength (124.3 MPa) values and the lower shrinkage strain (0.17%) among the materials tested. Alert composite revealed the highest flexural modulus value (9.9 GPa), which was not significantly different from XENIUS base composite (9.5 GPa). Depth of cure of XENIUS base (4.6 mm) was similar than those of bulk fill composites and higher than other hybrid composites. The length of fiber fillers in XENIUS base was longer (1.3-2 mm) than in Alert (20-60 μm). Conclusions The new short fiber composite differed significantly in its physical properties compared to other materials tested. This suggests that the latter could be used in high-stress bearing areas. © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials.


PubMed | University of Turku and Libyan International Medical University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of prosthetic dentistry | Year: 2016

Cycling masticatory loads decrease the strength of particulate filler composites (PFCs) and initiate the failure process by fatigue. The life expectancy of a composite resin restoration under stress remains difficult to predict.The purpose of this study was to determine the fracture resistance and the compressive fatigue limits (CFL) of anterior crown restorations made of a short-fiber reinforced composite resin (SFC), to investigate selected mechanical properties of the material following standard test methods, and to observe their correlation with the CFL.Specimens (n=10) were fabricated either from SFC (everX Posterior, GC Corp) or PFC (G-nial anterior, GC Corp). The properties investigated were flexural strength (FS), compression strength (CS), diametral-tensile strength (DTS), and single-edge-notched-bend fracture toughness (FT) following ISO standards. Fracture resistance was determined by static load (n=10) and the CFL at 10000 cycles was determined using a staircase approach (n=20), both on anterior composite resin crowns. The results were analyzed with 1-way ANOVA (=.05) or 2-way ANOVA (=.05) followed by a Tukey B post hoc test and the Pearson-correlation analysis.The SFC crowns had higher fracture resistance (954 121 N) than the PFC crowns (415 75 N) (P<.001) and higher CFL (267 23 N) than the PFC crowns (135 64 N) (P<.001). SFC revealed also higher FT (2.6 0.6 MPam(1/2)) than the PFC (1.0 0.2 MPam(1/2)) (F=69.313, P<.001). A significant correlation was observed only between the FT and the CFL (r(2)=0.899; P<.001).SFC crowns showed good performance under static and fatigue loading. FT was the only in vitro test method that filtered as a clinically relevant parameter.


Mansor S.,Libyan International Medical University | Bodalal Z.,Libyan International Medical University
Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan | Year: 2015

Objective: To analyze the impact of the method of Gunshot Injury (GSI) (i.e. war injuries, stray bullets, and civilian fighting) on patient morbidity and mortality. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Biostatistics Department of Al-Jalaa Hospital in Benghazi, Libya, from January to December 2011. Methodology: Patients' records were analyzed with the method of gunshot injury as a classifying/comparative parameter. Age, gender, site of injury, receiving department, ICU admission, city of origin, length of stay, morbidity and mortality were determined and compared between the different methods of GSI. Results: During the conflict, 1761 gunshot injuries were treated at the hospital. The method of injury was recorded for 62% (n=1096) of the cases and were classified under war injuries (72.2%, n=791), stray bullets (14.1%, n=155), and civilian fighting (13.7%, n=150). Nearly all the patients being treated for civilian fighting (98%, n=147) were males, (stray bullets, 82.6%, n=128, and war injuries 98.4%, n=778). Women were significantly less involved in a war injury (1.6%, n=13, p < 0.001). Stray bullets affected the younger age groups i.e. ≤ 19 years (26.5%, n=41) more than either fighting injuries (8%, n=12) or war injuries (11.8%, n=93, p < 0.001). Civilian fighting injuries (83.3%, n=125) mostly involved the 20-39 years age group (p < 0.001). Fighting wounds and stray bullets were more common in an urban (82.7%, n=124) rather than rural setting (p < 0.001); the same was true for stray bullets (76.8%, n = 119). The number of GSI's showed a close relationship with major events in society (i.e. military campaigns, celebration and civilian unrest). Significantly higher mortality rates were observed in civilian fighting injuries (7.7%, n=12, p=0.003) and stray bullets (10%, n=15, p=0.003) compared to general GSI's (5.2%, n=91) and war injuries (4.4%, n=35). Conclusion: Surgeons and general physicians need to be aware that GSI's differ in their salient features and outcome based on the method of injury.


Farid M.K.,Libyan International Medical University | El-Mansoury A.,Libyan International Medical University
Pan African Medical Journal | Year: 2015

Introduction: The practice of Kaiy (Cautery) as a traditional therapy is not science based though it is widely practiced worldwide. In Libya, in particular, it is commonly used with no any report or publication to emphasis on its positive or negative impact. This work was undertaken to highlight the complications and disadvantages of kaiy in the Libyan societies as it seems to cause more harm than benefit for the patient. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based survey in the period from the first of March to the end of April (two months) of the year 2013, on fifty patients who were collected from different hospitals in Benghazi city, and who had experienced Kaiy therapy for different diseases. Results: We found that kaiy application is more common among non educated patients (30 patients, 60%). Most of patients (45 cases, 90%) followed their relatives' advice and that 32 cases (63.5%) did not improve and show undesirable manifestations and complications. Conclusion: This study has shown that Kaiy therapy is associated with considerable health risks; therefore, we recommend discouraging and restricting its application. © Mona Kamal Farid et al.


Bodalal Z.,Libyan International Medical University | Mansor S.,Libyan International Medical University
Surgeon | Year: 2013

Background: Since independence, Libya has never experienced personal ownership of arms. That changed during the Libyan conflict where weapons became widespread in the society. As a result gunshot injuries became a concern for surgeons at our principal surgical hospital (Al-Jalaa). This study aims at analyzing the gunshot injuries that took place during 2011 and highlighting the peculiarities in the Libyan scenario. Methods: Patient records were obtained and gunshot injuries were analyzed for various parameters. Statistical analyses were made taking into consideration situations faced by neighbouring countries. Results: In 2011, 1761 patients were admitted with over 95% being male and over 97% were Libyan. The average age of a GSI patient was 28.32 ± 10.01 years. Patients aged 18-35 formed over 70% of the cases with half of all cases being treated by the orthopedics department. Sixty-eight percent of cases were injured in the extremities followed by chest (12.5%) and abdomen injuries (7.8%). The mortality rate for GSI's was found to be 5.6% overall with young age, site of injury (i.e. chest and head) and cause of injury (i.e. war or civilian fighting) being important risk factors. Conclusions: Taking into consideration the difficult operating conditions and limited resources, surgeons at our hospital were able to maintain a low mortality rate. Disarmament needs to begin as soon as possible because these injuries will continue to occur so long firearms are available in society. © 2013 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland.


PubMed | Libyan International Medical University and University of Sharjah
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Avicenna journal of medicine | Year: 2015

Surgical site infection (SSI) is considered one of the most serious complications in total joint arthroplasty (TJA). This study seeks to analyze the predictive value of preoperative and postoperative nutritional biomarkers for SSI in elective TJA.Nutritional markers were gathered retrospectively utilizing patients records from the orthopedics department at Benghazi Medical Center (BMC). The sample spanned cases admitted during the 20-month period between January 2012 and August 2013 and had undergone either elective total hip replacement or total knee replacement. The collected lab results included a complete blood count, total lymphocyte count (TLC), and serum albumin (S. alb.) levels. The patients were then divided into two groups based on the occurrence of an SSI.A total of 135 total knee (81.5%, n = 110/135) and total hip (18.5%, n = 25/135) replacements were performed at BMC during the study period. Among these cases, 57% (n = 78/135) had patient records suitable for statistical analysis. The average preoperative TLC was 2.422 10(3) cells/mm(3) (range = 0.8-4.7 10(3) cells/mm(3)) whereas that number dropped after the surgery to 1.694 10(3) cells/mm(3) (range = 0.6-3.8 10(3) cells/mm(3)). S. alb. levels showed a mean of 3.973 g/dl (range = 2.9-4.7 g/dl) preoperatively and 3.145 g/dl (range = 1.0-4.1 g/dl) postoperatively. The majority of TJA patients did not suffer any complication (67.4%, n = 91/135) while eight cases (5.9%) suffered from a superficial SSI.Preoperative S. alb. was identified as the only significant predictor for SSI (P = 0.011). Being a preventable cause of postoperative morbidity, it is recommended that the nutritional status (especially preoperative S. alb.) of TJA patients be used as a screening agent and appropriate measures be taken to avoid SSI.


PubMed | Libyan International Medical University
Type: | Journal: The Pan African medical journal | Year: 2016

The practice of Kaiy (Cautery) as a traditional therapy is not science based though it is widely practiced worldwide. In Libya, in particular, it is commonly used with no any report or publication to emphasis on its positive or negative impact. This work was undertaken to highlight the complications and disadvantages of kaiy in the Libyan societies as it seems to cause more harm than benefit for the patient.We conducted a questionnaire-based survey in the period from the first of March to the end of April (two months) of the year 2013, on fifty patients who were collected from different hospitals in Benghazi city, and who had experienced Kaiy therapy for different diseases.We found that kaiy application is more common among non educated patients (30 patients, 60%). Most of patients (45 cases, 90%) followed their relatives advice and that 32 cases (63.5%) did not improve and show undesirable manifestations and complications.This study has shown that Kaiy therapy is associated with considerable health risks; therefore, we recommend discouraging and restricting its application.

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