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Zohar D.,Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety | Zohar D.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2010

Looking back over 30 years of my own and other safety-climate scholars' research, my primary reflection is that we have achieved an enormous task of validating safety climate as a robust leading indicator or predictor of safety outcomes across industries and countries. The time has therefore come for moving to the next phase of scientific inquiry in which constructs are being augmented by testing its relationships with antecedents, moderators and mediators, as well as relationships with other established constructs. Whereas there has been some significant progress in this direction over the last 30 years (e.g. leadership as a climate antecedent), much more work is required for augmenting safety climate theory. I hope this article will stimulate further work along these lines. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Young A.E.,Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health | Year: 2010

Objective: Return to work following occupational injury is an important rehabilitation milestone; however, it does not mark the end of the return-to-work process. Following a return to the workplace, workers can experience difficulties that compromise their rehabilitation gains. Although there has been investigation of factors related to a return to the workplace, little attention has been paid to understanding what facilitates continued return-to-work success as this paper aims to do. Methods: This study used data gathered during one-on-one telephone interviews with 146 people who experienced a work-related injury that resulted in their being unable to return to their pre-injury job, but who returned to work following an extended period of absence and the receipt of vocational services. Results: Numerous return-to-work facilitators were reported, including features of the workers' environmental and personal contexts, as well as body function, activities, and participation. Influences that stood out included a perception that the work was appropriate, supportive workplace relationships, and a sense of satisfaction/achievement associated with being at work. Conclusions: The findings support the contention that initiatives aimed at improving return-to-work outcomes can go beyond the removal of barriers to include interventions to circumvent difficulties before they are encountered. Together with providing ideas for interventions, the study's findings offer an insight into research and theoretical development that might be undertaken to further the understanding of the return-to-work process and the factors that impact upon it.

Zhou R.,Beihang University | Horrey W.J.,Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety
Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour | Year: 2010

Adolescent pedestrians are a major population at risk of being killed or injured in traffic accidents, especially in developing countries. In the current study, we examined the effects of age, gender, sensation seeking, and conformity tendency on Chinese adolescent pedestrians' intention to cross the road against a traffic signal. A sample of 510 adolescents, aged 12-19 years, completed a series of questionnaires comprising (1) a demographic questionnaire, (2) scales which measured their tendency towards social conformity and sensation seeking, and (3) a questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), which measured their intention to cross the road in two different traffic scenarios. One scenario depicted a situation where the crossing was consistent with other pedestrians' behavior (Conformity scenario). In the second scenario, the road crossing was inconsistent with other pedestrians (Non-conformity scenario). Along with behavioral intentions, attitudes towards the behavior, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, anticipated affect, moral norms, and perceived risk were also assessed. In general, adolescent participants reported greater likelihood in crossing the road when other pedestrians were crossing the road as well (Conformity with the masses) and adolescents in middle school were more likely to cross than those in high school. A hierarchical regression model explained 30% of the variance in behavioral intention in the Non-conformity scenario and 40% of the variance in the Conformity scenario. For both scenarios, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and anticipated affect emerged as common predictors. The theoretical and practical implications for these results are discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Wilkie R.,Keele University | Pransky G.,Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Rheumatology | Year: 2012

The impact of musculoskeletal disorders on work is demanding more attention from clinicians. For many rheumatologists, inflammatory arthritis is the most frequently encountered condition that interferes with work. However, the cumulative burden of non-inflammatory arthropathies and disorders such as back pain, osteoarthritis and limb pain as a whole results in a much greater economic and human cost to society than inflammatory disease. New conceptual approaches and research results support the view that work loss does not need to be a frequent consequence of a musculoskeletal disorder or disability. This is often accomplished through a biopsychosocial and interdisciplinary approach, involving interaction between those with a musculoskeletal condition, their clinicians and employers. This review outlines the challenges and draws on the results of empirical studies to highlight potential opportunities to promote sustained ability for patients to successfully remain on the job. It also outlines future research opportunities. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Young A.E.,Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety
Disability and Rehabilitation | Year: 2010

Purpose: To determine post-return-to-work disability and functioning amongst occupationally injured workers and to test the extent to which demographic and other variables relate to employment maintenance. In addition, the project sought to document what workers believe determined their work continuation. Method: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted to inquire about participant's (N150) post-vocational rehabilitation return-to-work experiences. Results were interpreted using the health and health-related domains from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Results: Although most participants were working at the time of interview, almost all were experiencing functional- or activity-based restrictions. Factors differentiating those employed from those not, were largely contextual and included relationships with supervisors, economic climate, and working conditions. Conclusions.The findings stress the importance of considering environmental strains when planning return to work and indicate ways to assist workers to achieve return-to-work success. © 2010 Informa UK, Ltd.

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