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Obenauer P.J.,U.S. Navy | Abdel-Dayem M.S.,King Saud University | Stoops C.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Villinski J.T.,Us Naval Medical Research Unit No 3 | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2013

Malaria infection is a serious public health problem throughout Liberia, but vector surveillance is limited or nonexistent in remote regions of the country. To better understand the spatial and temporal distribution of malaria vectors in Liberia and to support vector and malaria activities of the Liberian Ministry of Health, a study was conducted to determine the efficacy of light traps baited with a synthetic lure and CO2 for capturing Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (Giles). Traps with a ultraviolet, light-emitting diode, and incandescent lights baited with a synthetic skin lure and CO2 combinations were evaluated at four field sites in three counties of Liberia for five consecutive nights every 8 wk during 2011. In total, 4,788 mosquitoes representing 56 species from nine genera were collected throughout the 30-wk study; An. gambiae s. l. comprised 32% and of the148 An. gambiae s. s. collected, 85% were of the S form. A greater percentage of An. gambiae s. l. were collected in ultraviolet traps baited with a synthetic lure and CO2 compared with any other trap configuration. The influence of trap configuration on conclusions from surveillance efforts, specifically with regards to An. gambiae is discussed. © 2013 Entomological Society of America.


de Souza D.K.,University of Ghana | Sesay S.,Ministry of Health and Sanitation | Moore M.G.,Ministry of Health and Social Welfare | Ansumana R.,Mercy Hospital Research Laboratory | And 9 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2014

Background:In West Africa, the principal vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF) are Anopheles species with Culex species playing only a minor role in transmission, if any. Being a predominantly rural disease, the question remains whether conflict-related migration of rural populations into urban areas would be sufficient for active transmission of the parasite.Methodology/Principal Findings:We examined LF transmission in urban areas in post-conflict Sierra Leone and Liberia that experienced significant rural-urban migration. Mosquitoes from Freetown and Monrovia, were analyzed for infection with Wuchereria bancrofti. We also undertook a transmission assessment survey (TAS) in Bo and Pujehun districts in Sierra Leone. The majority of the mosquitoes collected were Culex species, while Anopheles species were present in low numbers. The mosquitoes were analyzed in pools, with a maximum of 20 mosquitoes per pool. In both countries, a total of 1731 An. gambiae and 14342 Culex were analyzed for W. bancrofti, using the PCR. Two pools of Culex mosquitoes and 1 pool of An. gambiae were found infected from one community in Freetown. Pool screening analysis indicated a maximum likelihood of infection of 0.004 (95% CI of 0.00012-0.021) and 0.015 (95% CI of 0.0018-0.052) for the An. gambiae and Culex respectively. The results indicate that An. gambiae is present in low numbers, with a microfilaria prevalence breaking threshold value not sufficient to maintain transmission. The results of the TAS in Bo and Pujehun also indicated an antigen prevalence of 0.19% and 0.67% in children, respectively. This is well below the recommended 2% level for stopping MDA in Anopheles transmission areas, according to WHO guidelines.Conclusions:We found no evidence for active transmission of LF in cities, where internally displaced persons from rural areas lived for many years during the more than 10 years conflict in Sierra Leone and Liberia. © 2014 de Souza et al.


de Souza D.K.,University of Ghana | Koudou B.G.,Center for Neglected Tropical Diseases | Koudou B.G.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques En Cote Divoire | Bolay F.K.,Liberian Institute for Biomedical Research | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

It was in Freetown, Sierra Leone, that the malaria mosquito Anopheles coastalis, now known as Anopheles gambiae, was first discovered as the vector of malaria, in 1899. That discovery led to a pioneering vector research in Sierra Leone and neighbouring Liberia, where mosquito species were extensively characterized. Unfortunately, the decade long civil conflicts of the 1990s, in both countries, resulted in a stagnation of the once vibrant research on disease vectors. This paper attempts to fill in some of the gaps on what is now known of the distribution of the sibling species of the An. gambiae complex, and especially the An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s, formerly known as the An. gambiae molecular M and S forms respectively, in the cities of Freetown and Monrovia. © 2013 de Souza et al.


Alout H.,Colorado State University | Krajacich B.J.,Colorado State University | Meyers J.I.,Colorado State University | Grubaugh N.D.,Colorado State University | And 9 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2014

Background: Mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin to humans for control and elimination of filarial parasites can kill biting malaria vectors and lead to Plasmodium transmission reduction. This study examines the degree and duration of mosquitocidal effects resulting from single MDAs conducted in three different West African countries, and the subsequent reductions in parity and Plasmodium sporozoite rates. Methods: Indoor-resting, blood-fed and outdoor host-seeking Anopheles spp. were captured on days surrounding MDAs from 2008-2013 in Senegalese, Liberian and Burkinabé villages. Mortality was assessed on a portion of the indoor collection, and parity status was determined on host-seeking mosquitoes. The effect of MDA was then analysed against the time relative to the MDA, the distributed drugs and environmental variables. Results: Anopheles gambiae survivorship was reduced by 33.9% for one week following MDA and parity rates were significantly reduced for more than two weeks after the MDAs. Sporozoite rates were significantly reduced by >77% for two weeks following the MDAs in treatment villages despite occurring in the middle of intense transmission seasons. These observed effects were consistent across three different West African transmission dynamics. Conclusions: These data provide a comprehensive and crucial evidence base for the significant reduction in malaria transmission following single ivermectin MDAs across diverse field sites. Despite the limited duration of transmission reduction, these results support the hypothesis that repeated MDAs with optimal timing could help sustainably control malaria as well as filarial transmission.


Kugelman J.R.,U.S. Army | Wiley M.R.,U.S. Army | Mate S.,U.S. Army | Ladner J.T.,U.S. Army | And 19 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

To support Liberia’s response to the ongoing Ebola virus (EBOV) disease epidemic in Western Africa, we established in-country advanced genomic capabilities to monitor EBOV evolution. Twenty-five EBOV genomes were sequenced at the Liberian Institute for Biomedical Research, which provided an in-depth view of EBOV diversity in Liberia during September 2014–February 2015. These sequences were consistent with a single virus introduction to Liberia; however, shared ancestry with isolates from Mali indicated at least 1 additional instance of movement into or out of Liberia. The pace of change is generally consistent with previous estimates of mutation rate. We observed 23 nonsynonymous mutations and 1 nonsense mutation. Six of these changes are within known binding sites for sequence-based EBOV medical countermeasures; however, the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of EBOV evolution within Liberia appears to be low. © 2015, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved.

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