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Guo X.-Y.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Zhang P.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Xu J.-J.,China Academy of Engineering Physics | Wang Z.-H.,Liaoning Qingyang Special Chemical Co. | Jiao Q.-J.,Beijing Institute of Technology
Central European Journal of Energetic Materials | Year: 2015

In order to explore the polymorphic transition law for ε-CL-20 in composite systems, the polymorphic transition process of pure ε-CL-20 crystals stimulated by heat was investigated by the X-ray Diffraction (XRD) method, and the kinetic parameters of the polymorphic transition process were calculated (including the apparent activation energy Ea and the pre-exponential factor lnA). Meanwhile the effects of different additives on the polymorphic transition process and kinetics of ε-CL-20 were explored in detail. The experimental results showed that the ε-form tends to transform into the γ- form on heating and that the Ea and lnA for the transition process were 209.97 kJ/mol and 57.47, respectively. The first group of additives clearly promoted the polymorphic transition of ε-CL-20 and lowered the initial transition temperature and the activation energy. The second and third groups of additives inhibited the polymorphic transition of ε-CL-20 and raised the initial transition temperature and the activation energy.


Zhang P.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Guo X.-Y.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Zhang J.-Y.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Wang Z.-H.,Liaoning Qingyang Special Chemical Co. | Li S.-W.,Liaoning Qingyang Special Chemical Co.
Hanneng Cailiao/Chinese Journal of Energetic Materials | Year: 2013

The spherical superfine CL-20 were prepared using a physical grinding machine with three kinds of grinding balls, and the mechanism of the machine was introduced. The effects of the density of grinding balls and grinding time on the physical structures such as average particle size, particle size distribution and roundness and mechanical sensitivity of superfine CL-20 were studied. Results show the superfine CL-20 particles obtained with low-density grinding balls are spherical, and its mechanical sensitivity is significantly reduced, and its thermal stability is better than raw CL-20, and the polymorph remains ε-type. The high-density grinding balls can refine the materials well, while the smoothing effect of low-density grinding balls is better, and the particle-size distribution of superfine CL-20 is uniform and concentrated with roundness up to 0.9.


Ma R.-Y.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Yin H.-Q.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Zhang Y.-W.,Liaoning Qingyang Special Chemical Co Ltd | Li M.,Liaoning Qingyang Special Chemical Co Ltd | And 2 more authors.
Hanneng Cailiao/Chinese Journal of Energetic Materials | Year: 2015

The hydrocarbon oil and n-octanol were used to pretreat the waste solvents from 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) recrystallization process, and the white CL-20 solid was recovered. Ethyl acetate and chloroform were distilled by azeotropy for their different boiling points. The components of waste solvents and precipitated solid were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results show that the waste solvents mainly contain chloroform, ethyl acetate and α-CL-20.The purity of α-CL-20 recovered by hydrocarbon oil was 99.1% with the recovery rate up to 79.5%. © 2015, Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics. All right reserved.


Guo X.-Y.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Jiang X.-B.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Yu L.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Zhang P.,Beijing Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Huozhayao Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Explosives and Propellants | Year: 2013

Three kinds of ε-HNIW samples with different particle size and morphology were prepared by drowning-out recrystallization, and characterized by laser granularity measurement, polarization microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The impact and friction sensitivity were tested and the thermal stability of HNIW samples were recorded by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results indicated that the impact sensitivity of HNIW reduced rapidly with decreasing of particle size, thermal stability of HNIW reduced slowly. However, the friction sensitivity increased gradually along with the decreasing of particle size. HNIW with broad size distribution had higher mechanical sensitivity and thermal stability than samples with narrow size distribution. The HNIW with regular morphology had lower mechanical sensitivity and better thermal stability than samples with irregular crystals. The order of influencing factors on impact, friction and thermal decomposition of HNIW are particle size, size distribution and morphology.


Shen F.-F.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Zhang J.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Dong K.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Sun C.-H.,Beijing Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Huozhayao Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Explosives and Propellants | Year: 2013

To establish feasible method to determine the acid value of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtane (CL-20), through comparing potentiometric titration method with indicator titration method and screening out the best solvent and indicator, the best system to determine the acid value was obtained. The results show that the optimum potentiometric titration system is sodium hydroxide/water solution as titrant and mixed solution of 250 mL slightly acidic acetone and 50 mL water as solvent. The optimum indicator titration system is the above titrant and solvent, and the neutral red-methylene blue as the indicator. The standard deviation of above two methods is less than 0.00030311% and the minimum is 0.00001%. The relative standard deviation of above two methods is less than 0.99949%, and the minimum is 0.19458%. The substitution of potassium hydroxide/ethanol for the sodium hydroxide/water in the above titrant can also meet the operating requirement.


Zhang J.-Y.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Guo X.-Y.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Zhang P.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Wang Z.-H.,Liaoning Qingyang Special Chemical Co. | Chang S.-Q.,Liaoning Qingyang Special Chemical Co.
Guti Huojian Jishu/Journal of Solid Rocket Technology | Year: 2015

Spherical ultra-fine ε-HNIW particles were prepared by mechanical milling method. The physical structures and mechanical sensitivity of product HNIW, such as average particle size, particle size distribution and roundness, were highly affected by agitator's rotating speed, grinding duration, size of the grinding ball, filling rate of grinding balls within the mill chamber, dispersants and slurry concentration. The performance of the product HNIW was tested. The results show that the product HNIW particles are spherical, and the impact sensitivity of product HNIW is significantly reduced, while friction sensitivity is increased. Thermal stability is better than raw HNIW, and the polymorph remain unchanged. The smoothing and milling effect of milling ball with diameter of 5 mm is better, and the particle size distribution is uniform and concentrated, with size span down to 0.44 and roundness up to 0.85. © 2015, Journal of Solid Rocket Technology. All right reserved.


Wang Q.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Zhang Y.-W.,Liaoning Qingyang Special Chemical Co | Li M.,Liaoning Qingyang Special Chemical Co | Yin H.-Q.,Beijing Institute of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Hanneng Cailiao/Chinese Journal of Energetic Materials | Year: 2016

The TNT red water in the process of TNT production was pretreated by the complex extraction using trinoctylamine as a complex extraction agent. Seeing the removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and recycle use of extraction agent as goal, the effect of pH value, stirring speed, stirring time and the ratio of extraction agent and wastewater on the extraction efficiency was investigated. A study of intermittent experiment and continuous experiment was carried out. Results show that the extraction efficiency is the best when pH value is 0.9, stirring speed is 220 r·min-1, stirring time is 30 min. When the volume radio of the extraction agent and wastewater is 2.4, the COD removal rate of common TNT red water reaches 99.4% by realizing the control of content of COD in effluent water via changing the extraction phase ratio. The COD removal rate of military TNT red water reaches 99.0%. When the volume ratio of extraction agent and wastewater is 2.3-2.4, the extraction agent can be recycled. © 2016, Editorial Board of Chinese Chinese Journal of Energetic Materials. All right reserved.


Pang S.-P.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Shen F.-F.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Lyu P.-H.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Dong K.,Beijing Institute of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Binggong Xuebao/Acta Armamentarii | Year: 2014

The progress in synthesis and engineering manufacture of high energy and density compound hexanitro-hexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW or CL-20) is reviewed. The advantages, drawbacks and applications of three main approaches to the engineering manufacture of CL-20 based on hexabenzylhexaazaisowurtzitane(HBIW) intermediate are discussed, the difficulty in developing new synthetic routes for CL-20 is also analyzed. The result shows that the synthesis and nitration efficiencies of the new isosowurtzitane precursor are low, and its cage-dimensional structure is easily broken. The developing tends on lowering CL-20 production cost is to seek new efficient catalysts and explore new synthesis routes.


Ouyang G.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Guo X.-D.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Xi H.-J.,Liaoning Qingyang Special Chemical Co. | Liu J.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Binggong Xuebao/Acta Armamentarii | Year: 2015

Submicron hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) is prepared using HLG-50 pulverized machine. The laser particle size analyzer and SEM are used to characterize the particle size, size distribution and morphology of sample. The polymorph and purity of CL-20 particles are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, laser Raman spectrometer, XRD and HPLC, respectively. The TG/DSC simultaneous thermal analyzer is used to study the thermal decomposition of CL-20.The shock sensitivity of samples are studied. The results show that CL-20 particles are pseudo-spherical with an average particle size (d50) of 210 nm. The polymorph of submicron CL-20 is consistent with that of the raw ε-CL-20.Compared with the raw CL-20, the thermal decomposition peak temperature of the submicron CL-20 is decreased slightly, and the shock sensitivity of the submicron CL-20 is considerably reduced by 53.1%. That implies the obvious reduction in the shock sensitivity of CL-20. ©, 2015, China Ordnance Society. All right reserved.

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