Liaoning Provincial Core Laboratory of Glycobiology and Glycoengineering

Dalian, China

Liaoning Provincial Core Laboratory of Glycobiology and Glycoengineering

Dalian, China
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Sha S.,Dalian Medical University | Zhou Y.,Dalian Medical University | Xin Y.,Dalian Medical University | Xin Y.,Liaoning Provincial Core Laboratory of Glycobiology and Glycoengineering | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biomolecular Screening | Year: 2012

dTDP-L-rhamnose as a sugar donor provides L-rhamnosyl residue in the synthesis of disaccharide linker (D-N-acetylglucosamine-L-rhamnose), the key structure of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall. Four enzymes are involved in the formation of dTDP-L-rhamnose and D-glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase (RmlA) catalyzes the first step of D-glucose-1-phosphate and dTTP to dTDP-D-glucose and PPi. The previous studies on RmlA essentiality proved RmlA as a potential target for antituberculosis drugs. However, there has not been a suitable assay for RmlA to screen inhibitors currently. In this study, the authors reported a microtiter plate-based colorimetric assay for RmlA enzyme activity. Using this assay, the kinetic properties of M. tuberculosis RmlA including initial velocity, optimal temperature, optimal pH, the effect of Mg2+, and kinetic parameters were determined. The establishment of the accurate and rapid colorimetric assay and kinetic analysis of M. tuberculosis RmlA will facilitate high-throughput screening of RmlA inhibitors. © 2012 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.


Xu L.,Dalian Medical University | Wu D.,Dalian Medical University | Liu L.,Dalian Medical University | Zheng Q.,Dalian Medical University | And 8 more authors.
Research in Microbiology | Year: 2014

The mycobacterial peptidoglycan has structure and biosynthetic pathways to similar those of other bacteria. UDP- N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyle transferase (MurA) catalyzes the first reaction in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan. The MurA enzyme has been identified from various bacterial species, but the in-depth biochemical properties of mycobacterial MurA have not been characterized. In this study, both Mycobacterium tuberculosis MurA protein and Mycobacterium smegmatis MurA protein were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography. MurA activity was detected by HPLC. A colorimetric assay of MurA activity was also developed and the kinetic properties of Mtb MurA and Msm MurA were determined using this colorimetric assay. A conditional murA gene knockout strain was constructed by DNA homologous recombination. The disruption of murA in the genome of M. smegmatis led to loss of viability at a non-permissive temperature. Drastic morphological and structural alterations in the M. smegmatis murA knockout strain were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. These results demonstrated that murA was an essential gene for growth of M. smegmatis. Therefore, MurA is a potential target for developing new anti-tuberculosis drugs. © 2014 Institut Pasteur.


Yang S.,Dalian Medical University | Zhang F.,Dalian Medical University | Kang J.,Dalian Medical University | Zhang W.,Dalian Medical University | And 4 more authors.
BMC Microbiology | Year: 2014

Background: Many bacteria modulate and evade the immune defenses of their hosts through peptidoglycan (PG) deacetylation. The PG deacetylases from Streptococcus pneumonia, Listeria monocytogenes and Lactococcus lactis have been characterized. However, thus far, the PG deacetylase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has not been identified. Results: In this study, we cloned the Rv1096 gene from the M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain and expressed Rv1096 protein in both Escherichia coli and M. smegmatis. The results showed that the purified Rv1096 protein possessed metallo-dependent PG deacetylase activity, which increased in the presence of Co2+. The kinetic parameters of the PG deacetylase towards M. smegmatis PG as a substrate were as follows: K m, 0.910 ± 0.007 mM; Vmax, 0.514 ± 0.038 μMmin-1; and Kcat = 0.099 ± 0.007 (S -1). Additionally, the viability of M. smegmatis in the presence of over-expressed Rv1096 protein was 109-fold higher than that of wild-type M. smegmatis after lysozyme treatment. Additionally, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that in the presence of over-expressed Rv1096 protein, M. smegmatis kept its regular shape, with an undamaged cell wall and smooth surface. These results indicate that Rv1096 caused deacetylation of cell wall PG, leading to lysozyme resistance in M. smegmatis. Conclusion: We have determined that M. tuberculosis Rv1096 is a PG deacetylase. The PG deacetylase activity of Rv1096 contributed to lysozyme resistance in M. smegmatis. Our findings suggest that deacetylation of cell wall PG may be involved in evasion of host immune defenses by M. tuberculosis. © 2014 Yang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Kang J.,Dalian Medical University | Xu L.,Dalian Medical University | Yang S.,Dalian Medical University | Yu W.,Dalian Medical University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) is a direct glycosyl donor of linker unit (L-Rhamnose-D-GlcNAc) and an essential precursor of peptidoglycan in mycobacteria. Phosphoglucosamine mutase (GlmM) is involved in the formation of glucosamine-1-phosphate from glucosamine-6-phosphate, the second step in UDP-GlcNAc biosynthetic pathway. We have demonstrated that GlmM protein is essential for the growth of M. smegmatis. To facilitate the analysis of the GlmM protein function in mycobacteria, a tetracycline inducible M. smegmatis glmM gene knockdown strain was constructed by using an antisense RNA technology. After induction with 20 ng/ml tetracycline, the expression of GlmM protein in glmM gene knockdown strain was significantly decreased, resulting in a decline of cell growth. The morphological changes of glmM gene knockdown strain induced with 20 ng/ml tetracycline have been observed by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Furthermore, insufficient GlmM protein reduced the biofilm formation and increased the sensitivity to isoniazid and ethambutol in M. smegmatis, indicating that GlmM protein had effect on the biofilm formation and the senstivity to some anti-tuberculosis drugs targeting the cell wall. These results provide a new insight on GlmM functions in mycobacteria, suggesting that GlmM could be a potential target for development of new anti-tuberculosis drug. © 2013 Kang et al.


Zhou Y.,Dalian Medical University | Yu W.,Dalian Medical University | Zheng Q.,Dalian Medical University | Xin Y.,Dalian Medical University | And 3 more authors.
Glycoconjugate Journal | Year: 2012

M. tuberculosis GlmU is a bifunctional enzyme with acetyltransferase activity in C-terminus and uridyltransferase activity in N-terminus, and it is involved in the biosynthesis of glycosyl donor UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc). The crystal structure of M. tuberculosis GlmU clearly determines the active site and catalytic mechanism of GlmU uridyltransferase domain but not succeed in GlmU acetyltransferase domain. Sequence comparison analysis revealed highly conserved amino acid residues in the Cterminus between M. tuberculosis GlmU and GlmU enzymes from other bacteria. To find the essential amino acids related to M. tuberculosis GlmU acetyltransferase activity, we substituted 10 conserved amino acids in the acetyltransferase domain of M. tuberculosis GlmU by sitedirected mutagenesis. All the mutant GlmU proteins were largely expressed in soluble and purified by affinity chromatography. Enzyme assays showed that K362A, H374A, Y398A and W460A mutants abolished more than 90 % activity of M. tuberculosis GlmU acetyltransferase and totally lost the affinity with two substrates, suggesting the potential substrate-binding functions. However, K403A, S416A, N456A and E458A mutants exhibited decreased GlmU acetyltransferase activity and lower kinetic parameters, probably responsible for substrate releasing by conformation shifting. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.


Zhou Y.,Dalian Medical University | Xin Y.,Dalian Medical University | Xin Y.,Liaoning Provincial Core Laboratory of Glycobiology and Glycoengineering | Sha S.,Dalian Medical University | Ma Y.,Liaoning Provincial Core Laboratory of Glycobiology and Glycoengineering
Archives of Microbiology | Year: 2011

The UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) is present as one of the glycosyl donors for disaccharide linker (D-N-GlcNAc-L-rhamnose) and the precursor of peptidoglycan in mycobacteria. The bifunctional enzyme GlmU involves in the last two sequential steps of UDP-GlcNAc synthetic pathway. Glucosamine-1-phosphate acetyltransferase catalyzes the formation of N-acetylglucosamine-1- phosphate (GlcNAc-1-P) from glucosamine-1-phosphate (GlcN-1-P) and acetyl coenzyme A (Acetyl CoA), and N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase catalyzes the synthesis of UDP-GlcNAc from GlcNAc-1-P and UTP. The previous studies demonstrating the essentiality of GlmU to mycobacterial survival supported GlmU as a novel and potential target for TB drugs. In this work, two accurate and simple colorimetric assays based on 96-well microtiter plate were developed to measure the kinetic properties of bifunctional GlmU including initial velocity, optimal temperature, optimal pH, the effect of Mg2?, and the kinetic parameters. Both of the colorimetric assays for bifunctional GlmUenzyme activities and the kinetic properties will facilitate highthroughput screening of GlmU inhibitors. © Springer-Verlag 2011.


Li H.,Dalian Medical University | Zhou Y.,Dalian Medical University | Wang N.,Dalian Medical University | Xin Y.,Dalian Medical University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Hard Tissue Biology | Year: 2012

Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the primary etiological agent of human dental caries. A gene (SMU_1525) encoding MurA was identified in S. mutans UA159 (ATCC700610). The deduced amino-acid sequence has homology (51% identity) with E. coli MurA protein (AAC76221). In this study, we cloned S. mutans murA (SMU_1525) gene, expressed soluble recombinant MurA protein in E. coli BL21(DE3). The recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography. The molecular weight of expressed protein was about 45.6 kD. The activity of the protein was identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and was shown to have UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase activity. Then one microtiter plate based colourimetric assay for S. mutans MurA activity was developed. The optimal temperature and pH of the purified enzyme were 37°C and 7.5, respectively. The K m for UDP-GlcNAc was 0.120 mM and for PEP was 0.086 mM. The V max for UDP-GlcNAc was 0.048 mM min -1 mg -1 and for PEP was 0.098 mM min -1 mg -1. The activity of S. mutans MurA was inhibited by the fosfomycin, known MurA inhibitor. © 2012 The Hard Tissue Biology Network Association Printed in Japan, All rights reserved.


Yang X.-S.,Liaoning Provincial Core Laboratory of Glycobiology and Glycoengineering | Liu S.-A.,Liaoning Provincial Core Laboratory of Glycobiology and Glycoengineering | Liu J.-W.,Dalian Medical University | Yan Q.,Liaoning Provincial Core Laboratory of Glycobiology and Glycoengineering
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2012

Fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) has been implicated in cell adhesion, motility, and tumor progression in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. We previously reported that it promotes cell proliferation through the ERK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying FUT4- induced cell invasion remain unknown. In this study we determined the effect of FUT4 on expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12 induced by EGF in A431 cells. Treatment with EGF resulted in an alteration of cell morphology and induced an increase in the expression of MMP-12. EGF induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kB (NF-κB) and resulted in phosphorylation of IkBα in a time-dependent manner. In addition, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK were shown to play a crucial role in mediating EGF-induced NF-κB translocation and phosphorylation of IκBα when treated with the MAPK inhibitors, PD98059 and SB203580, which resulted in increased MMP-12 expression. Importantly, we showed that FUT4 up-regulated EGF-induced MMP-12 expression by promoting the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK, thereby inducing phosphorylation/ degradation of IκBα, NF-κB activation. Base on our data, we propose that FUT4 up-regulates expression of MMP-12 via a MAPK-NF-κB-dependent mechanism.


Xu L.,Dalian Medical University | Qian L.,Dalian Medical University | Kang J.,Dalian Medical University | Sha S.,Dalian Medical University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2016

Aims: To construct a conditional N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase (WecA) knockdown strain of Mycobacterium smegmatis and to investigate the biological effect of WecA on mycobacterial growth, morphology and susceptibilities against anti-tuberculosis drugs. Methods and Results: Mycobacterium smegmatis wecA knockdown strain was constructed by using a tetracycline-inducible expression vector pMind and the expression of WecA was regulated by antisense RNA. The results of growth curves and the colony formation unit curves showed that the growth rate of WecA down-regulation strain was decreased and the amount of live bacterial cells dropped. In addition, the wecA knockdown strain exhibited dramatically morphological alterations through scanning electron microscopy observation. The susceptibility of WecA low-expression strain to anti-tuberculosis drugs was detected by using a rapid resazurin microtitre assay as well as a traditional agar dilution method. Notably, the wecA knockdown strain was more sensitive to rifampin, compared with the wecA normal-expression strain. In addition, the sensitivity of wild type Myco. smegmatis mc2155 strain against rifampin was also enhanced in the presence of a low concentration of tunicamycin, a natural WecA inhibitor. Conclusions: Down-regulation of WecA enhanced the sensitivity of Myco. smegmatis against rifampin. Significance and Impact of the Study: These results provided a possibility of combined application of rifampin together with tunicamycin or other WecA inhibitors, which could be a new approach for the treatment of tuberculosis. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology


Li S.,Dalian Medical University | Kang J.,Dalian Medical University | Yu W.,Dalian Medical University | Zhou Y.,Dalian Medical University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The normal growth of mycobacteria attributes to the integrity of cell wall core which consists of peptidoglycan (PG), arabinogalactan (AG) and mycolic acids. N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) is an essential component in both PG and AG of mycobacterial cell wall. The biosynthetic pathway for UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), as a sugar donor of GlcNAc, is different in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The conversion of glucosamine-6-phosphate to glucosamine-1-phosphate, which is catalyzed by phosphoglucosamine mutase (GlmM), is unique to prokaryotes. Bioinformatic analysis showed that Msm MSMEG_1556 and Mtb Rv3441c are homologous to Ec GlmM. In this study, soluble Msm MSMEG_1556 protein and Mtb Rv3441c protein were expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) and their phosphoglucosamine mutase activity were detected. In order to further investigate the essentiality of MSMEG_1556 for the growth of M. smegmatis, we generated a conditional MSMEG_1556 knockout mutant, which harbored thermo-sensitive rescue plasmid carrying Mtb Rv3441c. As the rescue plasmid was unable to complement MSMEG_1556 deficiency at 42°C, MSMEG_1556 knockout mutant did not grow. The dramatic morphological changes of MSMEG_1556 knockout mutant after temperature shift from 30°C to 42°C have been observed by scanning electron microscope. These results demonstrated that MSMEG_1556 is essential for growth of M. smegmatis. This study provided evidence that GlmM enzyme could be as a potential target for developing anti-tuberculosis drugs. © 2012 Li et al.

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