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Yang J.,Jiangsu University | Yang J.,Dalian Polytechnic University | Zhu B.,Jiangsu University | Zhu B.,Dalian Polytechnic University | And 5 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2013

In this study, glycogen was extracted from oyster Ostrea talienwhanensis Crosse and used as a model to investigate the structure-Activity correlation of polysaccharides. Purified oyster glycogen was characterized by methylation analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The oyster glycogen was subsequently sulfated by chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method, and a C-6 substituted species (SOG) was identified to be the primary sulfated oyster glycogen species by 13C NMR spectroscopy. The molecular weight and sulfate content of the SOG was determined to be 3.2 × 104 g/mol and 33.6%, respectively. Another sulfated oyster glycogen species (SOG1) with C-2 and C-3 substitution was also identified at a lesser amount in the final product. SOG exhibited a much stronger stimulation effect to splenic lymphocyte proliferation than SOG1 in vitro, indicating that the position of sulfate substitution is a major determining factor on the efficacy of sulfated glycogens to stimulate lymphocyte proliferation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Tian A.-X.,Bohai University | Lin X.-L.,Bohai University | Liu Y.-J.,Bohai University | Liu G.-Y.,Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Coordination Chemistry | Year: 2012

Through tuning the oxidation states of Cu I/II, two Keggin-based compounds with different topologies, [Cu I 5(btx) 4(PW VI 10W V 2O 40)] (1) and [Cu 2 II(btx) 4(SiW 12O 40)] (2) (btx = 1,6-bis(1,2, 4-triazol-1-y1)hexane), were synthesized and structurally characterized. In 1, there exist decanuclear Cu I circuits, which are linked through N1-containing btx ligands to construct a grid-like 2-D layer. Three sets of these layers interpenetrate to build a three-fold interpenetrating framework. The Keggin polyanions connect the adjacent three-fold interpenetrating frameworks to construct a 3-D structure. In 2, the Cu II-btx moiety shows a (6 6) 3-D hexagonal channel-style framework. The Keggin polyanion offering four terminal oxygen atoms incorporates with this metal-organic framework imbedding the channels. The different oxidation states of copper ions (+I/+II) induces distinct coordination modes of btx and Keggin polyanions and affects the whole structural topologies. Tuning the oxidation states of copper ions is an effective strategy for obtaining POM-based topologies. In addition, the electrochemical properties of 1 and 2 bulk-modified carbon-paste electrodes are reported. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.


Mi X.,Northwest University, China | Wei Z.,Dezhou University | Zhou Z.,Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute | Liu X.,Northwest University, China
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part D: Genomics and Proteomics | Year: 2014

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by post-transcriptional repression of messenger RNA. The echinoderm, Strongylocentrotus nudus, is an excellent model organism for studying development and commercially important as a food source. However, to date no miRNAs have been reported to modulate sex gonad differentiation in S. nudus. In this study, we constructed two small RNA libraries from male and female S. nudus gonad respectively for Solexa sequencing. A total of 184 miRNAs including 60 known and 124 novel miRNAs were identified from the two libraries. Furthermore, the nucleotide bias and end variation of the known miRNAs were also analyzed. In addition, 67 differently expressed of the 86 co-expressed and 98 gender-specific (47 male-specific and 51 female-specific) miRNAs that may be involved in sexual differentiation were found by comparing the miRNA expression profiles in the two libraries. This study reveals the first miRNA profile related to the gonad differentiation of the S. nudus. This study gives a first insight into sex differences in miRNA expression of sea urchin which could facilitate studies of the reproductive organ-specific roles of miRNAs. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Wang K.,Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute | Wang N.-B.,Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute
Shuidonglixue Yanjiu yu Jinzhan/Chinese Journal of Hydrodynamics Ser. A | Year: 2010

Based on natural situation in Liaodong bay, the numerical diffusion model which was used to investigate the impact of pollutant point source input was proposed to analysis the distributions of the nutrient concentrations in Liaodong bay. The distributions of the nutrient elements were studied in detail. The numerical simulation results compared with actual observed data proved the accuracy and practicability of the method.


Zhou Z.C.,Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute | Dong Y.,Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute | Sun H.J.,Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute | Yang A.F.,Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Ecology Resources | Year: 2014

Sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) is an ecologically and economically important species in East and South-East Asia. This project aimed to identify large numbers of gene-associated markers and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) after lipopolysaccharides (LPS) challenge in A. japonicus using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. A total of 162 million high-quality reads of 174 million raw reads were obtained by deep sequencing using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. Assembly of these reads generated 94 704 unigenes, with read length ranging from 200 to 16 153 bp (average length of 810 bp). A total of 36 005 were identified as coding sequences (CDSs), 32 479 of which were successfully annotated. Based on the assembly transcriptome, we identified 142 511 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Among them, 33 775, 63 120 and 45 616 were located in sequences without predicted CDS (non-CDSs), CDSs and untranslated regions (UTRs), respectively. These putative SNPs included 82 664 transitions and 59 847 transversions. Totally, 89 375 (59.1%) were distributed in 15 473 known genes. A total of 6417 microsatellites were detected in 5970 unigenes, 3216 of which were annotated and 2481 were successfully subjected for primer design. The numbers of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) identified in non-CDSs, CDSs and UTRs were 2367, 2316 and 1734. These potential SNPs and SSRs are expected to provide abundant resources for genetic, evolutionary and ecological studies in sea cucumber. Transcriptome comparison revealed 1330, 1347 and 1291 DEGs in the coelomocytes of A. japonicus at 4 h, 24 h and 72 h after LPS challenge, respectively. Approximately 58.4% (1802) of total DEGs have been successfully annotated. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Liu W.D.,Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute
International journal of molecular sciences | Year: 2010

Japanese scallop (Mizuhopecten yessoensis) is a cold-tolerant bivalve that was introduced to China for aquaculture in 1982. In this study, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to investigate levels of genetic diversity within M. yessoensis cultured stocks and compare them with wild populations. Six pairs of primer combinations generated 368 loci among 332 individuals, in four cultured and three wild populations. High polymorphism at AFLP markers was found within both cultured and wild M. yessoensis populations. The percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 61.04% to 72.08%, while the mean heterozygosity ranged from 0.2116 to 0.2596. Compared with wild populations, the four hatchery populations showed significant genetic changes, such as lower expected heterozygosity and percentage of polymorphic loci, and smaller frequency of private alleles, all indicative of a reduction in genetic diversity. Some genetic structures were associated with the geographical distribution of samples; with all samples from Dalian and Japan being closely related, while the population from Russia fell into a distinct clade in the phylogenetic analysis. The genetic information derived from this study indicated that intentional or accidental release of selected Japanese scallops into natural sea areas might result in disturbance of local gene pools and loss of genetic variability. We recommend monitoring the genetic variability of selected hatchery populations to enhance conservation of natural Japanese scallop resources.


He C.-B.,Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute | Wang Y.,Liaoning Normal University | Liu W.-D.,Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute | Gao X.-G.,Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2013

Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a key adaptor molecule for the tumor necrosis factor superfamily and Toll-like/interleukin-1 receptor superfamily. It plays an important role in innate and adaptive immunity. The TRAF6 of Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis (designated as MyTRAF6) was identified and characterized in this study. The full-length cDNA of MyTRAF6 was 2,407 bp, which consisted of 239-bp 5′-terminal untranslated region, 1,974-bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 657 amino acids, 194-bp of 3′-terminal untranslated region followed by a canonical polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA and a poly (A) tail. The predicted amino acid sequence of MyTRAF6 contained the characteristic motifs of TRAF proteins, including a Zinc finger of RING-type, two Zinc fingers of TRAF-type, and a MATH (meprin and TRAF homology) domain. It had an overall identity of 43-96 % with those of other TRAF6s, the highest identity (96 %) with Chlamys farreri TRAF6, and the least identity (43 %) with Meleagris gallopavo TRAF6. Phylogenetic analysis classified MyTRAF6 as a true TRAF6 ortholog. In addition, the promoter of MyTRAF6 was also identified by genome walking. It contained several potential transcription factor-binding sites and three single nucleotide polymorphisms. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that MyTRAF6 was highly expressed in hemocytes of adult M. yessoensis. MyTRAF6 transcript level in the hemocytes reached a maximum 6 h after Vibrio anguilarum challenge. The results indicated that MyTRAF6 may fulfill an important function during M. yessoensis bacterial infection. It could be a key effector molecule involved in the innate defense of molluscs. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Zhou Z.,Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute | Sun D.,Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute | Yang A.,Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute | Dong Y.,Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2011

The complement system has been discovered in invertebrates and vertebrates, and plays a crucial role in the innate defense against common pathogens. As a central component in the complement system, complement component 3 (C3) is an intermediary between innate and adaptive immune system. In this study, a new isoform of C3 in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, termed AjC3-2 was identified. Its open reading frame (ORF) is 5085 bp and encodes for 1695 amino acids with a putative signal peptide of 20 amino acid residues. The mature protein molecular weight of AjC3-2 was 187.72 kDa. It has a conserved thioester site and a linker R 689RRR 692 where AjC3-2 is splitted into β and α chain during posttranslational modification. The expression patterns of two distinct sea cucumber C3 genes, AjC3-2 and AjC3, were similar. During the different development stages from unfertilized egg to juvenile of the sea cucumber, the highest expression levels of AjC3-2 and AjC3 genes were both found in late auricularia. In the adult, the highest expression of these two genes was observed in the coelomocytes and followed by the body wall. AjC3-2 and AjC3 genes expression increased significantly at 6 h after the LPS challenge. These results indicated that these two C3 genes play a pivotal role in immune responses to the bacterial infection in sea cucumber. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Sun M.,Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute | Dong J.,Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute | Chai Y.,Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute | Li Y.,Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2013

When jellyfish aggregate in great abundance and form large swarms, or 'blooms', they often cause significant environmental and economic impacts. Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye is one of the jellyfish species causing problems in the waters of China. C. nozakii has a life cycle consisting of a planktonic sexually-reproducing medusa and a benthic asexually-reproducing polyp. Polyps produce young medusae (ephyrae) through strobilation. Increasing medusa populations may reflect the increasing success of asexual polyp reproduction. Environmental factors (temperature, salinity, light, food, etc.) significantly affect the population size of both polyps and medusae. Therefore, studying the effects of environmental factors on the asexual reproduction of C. nozakii is important for exploring the reproduction potential of this jellyfish and to forecast jellyfish blooms. In this study, polyps of C. nozakii, from Liaodong Bay, Bohai Sea, were tested in six temperature gradients (7. 5°C, 11°C, 14. 5°C, 18. 5, 21. 5 °C and 25°C) and nine temperature (14. 5°C, 18°C and 21. 5 °C) and feeding frequency (1/2d, 1/8d and 1/16d) combinations in laboratory experiments. The influences of the two environmental factors and their interactions with asexual reproduction and polyp growth were observed. The results showed that polyps did not produce podocysts at low temperatures (7. 5-14. 5 °C). The percentage of polyps that produced podocysts and the number of podocysts produced by each polyp increased with increasing temperature at warm temperatures (18-25 °C). Podocysts germinated only in the 21. 5 °C and 25 °C groups, but the difference was not significant (P> 0. 05, n=3). Optimum temperatures for podocyst reproduction were from 18 °C to 25 °C. Strobilation occurred only at 21. 5 °C and 25 °C. At 25 °C, strobilation occurred earlier, the strobilation rate was always higher, the polyps strobilated more times, and the time between strobilations was shorter than that at 21. 5 °C. The results of the temperature and feeding frequency combinations showed that the maximum percentage of polyps that produced podocysts and the highest number of podocysts produced by each polyp occurred at the 21. 5 °C and 1time/ 2d feeding frequency combination. Podocyst reproduction (P<0. 01, n = 45) and strobilation rates(P<0. 05, n = 45) differed significantly with temperature, feeding frequency, and their interaction. Strobilation times differed significantly with temperature(P<0. 05,n = 45). The polyp survival rate was 100% in all temperatures (7. 5-25 °C). The relative growth rate and the specific growth rate of polyps increased with increasing temperature. The results of the combination of temperature and feeding frequency showed that polyp growth differed significantly with temperature, feeding frequency, and their interaction (P < 0. 01, n = 45). Strobilation times and ephyra primary diameter increased with larger polyp diameter. The cumulative number of ephyrae released by polyps at the combination of 25 °C and 1time/2d was about 293 times that released at 21. 5 °C and 1time/ 8d, suggesting that temperature and nutritional conditions strongly affect ephyra numbers for C. nozakii. Temperature, feeding frequency and their interaction significantly affected the potential production of polyps and medusa, indicating that both increases in water temperature and increases in zooplankton prey abundance because of eutrophication and declining fisheries may encourage prominent blooms of C. nozakii medusae.


Li H.,National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center | Liu S.,National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center | He C.,Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute | Gao X.,Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute | Yuan X.,National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center
Aquatic Biology | Year: 2013

Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones that help organisms cope with stressful conditions. In this study, a novel small HSP (sHSP) gene was identified from the hard clam Meretrix meretrix (designated as Mm-HSP20). The full length of the cDNA is 1222 bp, consisting of a 5'-terminal untranslated region (5'UTR) of 103 bp, a 3'UTR of 565 bp, and a 522 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 173 amino acids. Sequence comparison showed that Mm-HSP20 had a moderate degree of homology to the sHSP of other organisms. A sHSP feature domain, an alpha-crystallin domain, and a V/IXI/V motif in the C-terminal extension were identified in the Mm-HSP20 amino acid sequence, indicating that Mm-HSP20 is a new member of the sHSP family. The Mm-HSP20 transcript was constitutively expressed in 6 different test tissues, with the highest expression level detected in the digestive gland by fluorescent quantitative realtime PCR. The temporal expression of Mm-HSP20 mRNA in the digestive gland and hemocytes was evaluated after exposure to cadmium (Cd) (40 μg l-1CdCl2) and benzo[a]pyrene (50 μg l-1B[a]P) individually, and in combination (40 μg l-1 CdCl2 +5 0 μg l-1 B[a]P). Mm-HSP20 expression level increased significantly after Cd and B[a]P exposure in both tissue types. Conversely, significant Mm-HSP20 transcript repression was detected in the 24 h B[a]P-treated digestive gland samples. Considerable up-regulation of Mm-HSP20 mRNA level was observed after multiple exposures. These results indicate that Mm-HSP20 plays a role in mechanisms involved in coping with environmental stress in hard clams. Mm-HSP20 may be suitable for use as a biomarker for heavy metal and B[a]P contamination. © Inter-Research 2013.

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