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Gu Z.,China Agricultural University | Meng D.,China Agricultural University | Yang Q.,China Agricultural University | Yuan H.,China Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
Tree Genetics and Genomes

As a signaling molecule in plants and animals, calcium plays important roles in cell growth and development. A concentration gradient of calcium in the apex of tip-growing cells regulates polarized growth. In this study, we cloned the gene encoding a calcineurin B subunit protein, MdCBL5, in “Ralls Janet” apple. We found that MdCBL5 was strongly expressed in pollen and that the encoded protein contained the conserved calcineurin EF hand domain. Antisense-mediated silencing of MdCBL5 disrupted the calcium ion concentration gradient in the pollen tube apex and inhibited pollen tube growth. During the self-incompatibility response in apple, S-RNase uptake disrupts the calcium gradient in the pollen tube apex and inhibits pollen tube growth. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that MdCBL5 was downregulated in pollen tubes treated with S-RNase. We confirmed the interaction between MdCBL5 and S-RNase using yeast two-hybrid, pull-down, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) experiments. These results show that MdCBL5 is a calcium signaling factor that interacts with S-RNases and regulates pollen tube growth and is itself likely regulated by S-RNase during the self-incompatibility response. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Liu C.,Michigan State University | Liu C.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology | Callow P.,Michigan State University | Rowland L.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture

Protocols were developed to optimize adventitious shoot regeneration from four southern highbush blueberry cultivars. Leaf explants from 6 week-old shoots of the four cultivars were excised and cultured on woody plant medium each containing thidiazuron (4.54 or 9.08 μM), zeatin (18.2 μM), or zeatin riboside (5.7 or 11.4 μM) either separately or in combination with α-naphthaleneacetic acid at 2.69 μM. Optimum medium for shoot regeneration was genotype-dependent. Efficient regeneration was obtained at frequencies of 88.9% for 'Jewel', 87.8% for 'Emerald', 53.3% for 'Jubilee' and 87.8% for 'Biloxi'. Leaf explants of newly developed shoots from the cultures having undergone five subcultures had higher regeneration frequencies than those having undergone two subcultures. Regenerated shoots, 80-100% for each cultivar, rooted in 8 weeks after transplantation to soil. The regeneration systems described have potential use in genetic transformation of southern highbush blueberry cultivars. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Zhang Q.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology | Gu D.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology

An interspecific hybrid between Prunus tomentosa and P. salicina was produced through controlled pollination and confirmed by comparison of morphological characters and DNA markers. Morphological traits were intermediate between the two parents and fruit are much larger than that of P. tomentosa. Trees grafted on P. Tomentosa rootstock are compact, cold hardy, precocious, and productive. It is new and potentially useful stone fruit germplasm for commercial production and further breeding in Prunus. © 2015, American Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved. Source

Zhang H.,CAS Institute of Botany | Zhang H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Liu W.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology | Fang J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Analytical Letters

The volatile compounds of 85 regional apricot cultivars native to China were characterized by headspace-solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 156 volatile compounds were tentatively detected, 62 of which were identified in apricots for the first time. The composition and concentration of the volatile compounds varied greatly among the cultivars, with the number of individual compounds per cultivar ranging from 39 to 85, at concentrations of 9.0 to 296.5 mg/kg fresh weight. The apricots from northwest China had the highest concentrations of volatile compounds, while those from the southwest had the lowest concentrations. Based on principal component analysis, the cultivars were divided into four groups characterized by their volatile profiles: 1) terpenoids; 2) aldehydes; 3) terpenoids and aldehydes; and 4) an absence of characteristic volatiles. The greatest diversity of volatile compounds was found in cultivars from northwest China, while the diversity diminished progressively for the cultivars of north, northeast, and southwest China, indicating that the volatile profiles of the cultivars corresponded to their different ecogeographical groups. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Chai Q.,CAS Institute of Botany | Chai Q.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Chai Q.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden | Wu B.,CAS Institute of Botany | And 7 more authors.
Food Chemistry

The volatiles of 75 plums belonging to five species and one interspecific hybrid were investigated by headspace-SPME-GC-MS; 88 volatiles were identified. Prunus salicina and its hybrids had much more compounds and higher contents of volatiles than Prunus domestica and other three Chinese wild species. Aldehydes were the dominant volatiles in P. domestica and Prunus spinosa while esters were the major volatiles in P. salicina, P. salicina hybrids and Prunus ussuriensis fruits. Regarding terpenoids and alcohols, they were relatively high in several P. salicina cultivars, P. salicina hybrids and P. spinosa, and in Prunus cerasifera, respectively. All the plum germplasms could be divided into three groups via principal component analysis: (1) nine cultivars of P. salicina with high ester content, (2) nine Chinese cultivars and one P. salicina hybrid with ester content and two terpenoids, and (3) the rest of the cultivars and three Chinese wild species without characteristic volatiles. Crown Copyright © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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