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Zhang Q.-P.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology | Liu W.-S.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology | Liu N.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology | Zhang Y.-P.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology | And 4 more authors.
Horticultural Science | Year: 2017

Apricot is one of the oldest fruit tree crops in China and it was spread via Armenia to other areas. There are about ten species of apricot (Subg. Armeniaca Mill.) worldwide, among which nine species are native to China. Sharka disease caused by the Plum pox virus (PPV) is widely distributed in the main producing regions of apricot. In this study, linked simple sequence repeats (SSR) primers were used to detect allele variations potentially associated with PPV resistance among Chinese apricot germplasm resources, including 52 accessions belonging to Prunus armeniaca, 7 to Prunus mandshurica, 6 to Prunus sibirica, 4 to Prunus mume, 17 to other species or types. The allelic variation at loci with PPV resistance showed that these SSR markers linked to PPV resistance kept a relatively high level of diversity in Chinese apricot. The special alleles and genotypes only found in South China cultivars might reveal new PPV resistance sources. Some famous local cultivars of Chinese apricot might be considered as candidates for PPV resistance.


Qin G.H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wei S.W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Tao S.T.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang H.P.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science | Year: 2017

The ripe fruit of Pyrus ussuriensis ‘Nanguoli’ is favoured by people for its attractive colour, exquisite flesh and pleasant flavour. However, its flavour is negatively affected by early harvest. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether exogenous methyl jasmonate (MJ) can help to regulate aromatic volatiles biosynthesis in pre-climacteric ‘Nanguoli’ fruit at different maturity stages (135 days after full bloom (DAFB) or ‘early harvested’ and 145 DAFB or ‘normal harvested’). MJ promoted aromatic volatile biosynthesis in normal harvested fruit, with the number of volatile compounds increasing from 43 in untreated fruit to 51 and 57 in fruit that had been treated with 1 and 5 mM MJ, respectively. By contrast, MJ had little effect on early harvested fruit, which exhibited an increase from 41 to 49 and 44 volatile compounds following treatment with 1 and 5 mM MJ, respectively. The total content of aromatic volatiles also increased by 53.75% and 66.82% in normal harvested fruit treated with 1 and 5 mM MJ, respectively, whereas early harvested fruit exhibited only slight increases. There was no significant difference between the effects of 1 and 5 mM MJ on aromatic volatile biosynthesis, indicating that the observed effects were dependent on the maturity stage of the fruit rather than the exogenous MJ concentration within the range tested. The ethylene production rate exhibited similar changes to those observed for the aromatic volatile content and there were no significant differences in the aromatic volatile contents of ‘Nanguoli’ fruits that had been treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) + MJ at different maturity stages. Therefore, it is deduced that ethylene may trigger aromatic volatile biosynthesis. © 2017 The Royal Society of New Zealand


Chai Q.,CAS Institute of Botany | Chai Q.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Chai Q.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden | Wu B.,CAS Institute of Botany | And 7 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The volatiles of 75 plums belonging to five species and one interspecific hybrid were investigated by headspace-SPME-GC-MS; 88 volatiles were identified. Prunus salicina and its hybrids had much more compounds and higher contents of volatiles than Prunus domestica and other three Chinese wild species. Aldehydes were the dominant volatiles in P. domestica and Prunus spinosa while esters were the major volatiles in P. salicina, P. salicina hybrids and Prunus ussuriensis fruits. Regarding terpenoids and alcohols, they were relatively high in several P. salicina cultivars, P. salicina hybrids and P. spinosa, and in Prunus cerasifera, respectively. All the plum germplasms could be divided into three groups via principal component analysis: (1) nine cultivars of P. salicina with high ester content, (2) nine Chinese cultivars and one P. salicina hybrid with ester content and two terpenoids, and (3) the rest of the cultivars and three Chinese wild species without characteristic volatiles. Crown Copyright © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Liu C.,Michigan State University | Liu C.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology | Callow P.,Michigan State University | Rowland L.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture | Year: 2010

Protocols were developed to optimize adventitious shoot regeneration from four southern highbush blueberry cultivars. Leaf explants from 6 week-old shoots of the four cultivars were excised and cultured on woody plant medium each containing thidiazuron (4.54 or 9.08 μM), zeatin (18.2 μM), or zeatin riboside (5.7 or 11.4 μM) either separately or in combination with α-naphthaleneacetic acid at 2.69 μM. Optimum medium for shoot regeneration was genotype-dependent. Efficient regeneration was obtained at frequencies of 88.9% for 'Jewel', 87.8% for 'Emerald', 53.3% for 'Jubilee' and 87.8% for 'Biloxi'. Leaf explants of newly developed shoots from the cultures having undergone five subcultures had higher regeneration frequencies than those having undergone two subcultures. Regenerated shoots, 80-100% for each cultivar, rooted in 8 weeks after transplantation to soil. The regeneration systems described have potential use in genetic transformation of southern highbush blueberry cultivars. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Liu Y.-C.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology | Liu Y.-C.,Shenyang University | Liu S.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology | Liu D.-C.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | And 6 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) databases are an increasingly valuable resource for developing SSR markers. However, to date, only a limited number of SSR markers have been developed from EST databases for blueberry. In this study, 17,267 ESTs in blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) were screened for SSRs with motif lengths varying from 2 to 6 base pairs (bp). In total, 2187 SSRs (12.67% of total screened ESTs) were identified from 1876 microsatellite-containing sequences. Dinucleotide repeats follow by trinucleotide repeats were the predominant motif. A total of 54 EST-SSR markers were characterized from 120 primer pairs designed by assaying 12 samples of the Vaccinium genus section Cyanococcus. The primer pairs exhibited a high degree of polymorphism with a mean PIC of 0.772, indicating high level informativeness within these EST-SSRs. The 54 new EST-SSR primer pairs comprising 540 alleles were used to investigate cross-species transferability among 26 accessions, which represented 8 species (three exotic cultivated species and five natural wild species from China) from 6 sections of Vaccinium. The results indicated that cross-species transferability ranged from 68.5% to 88.9%. Cluster analysis and PCoA based on 54 EST-SSR primer pairs were largely consistent with the traditional taxonomy and geographic locations among the materials tested, and both indicated that the EST-SSR primers were effective for the phylogenetic analysis in Vaccinium. Our results showed that those EST-SSR markers displayed considerable polymorphism and high transferability in both cultivated and wild species of Vaccinium, and will contribute to the studies of genetic diversity, linkage mapping, QTL and molecular assisted breeding of Vaccinium crops. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Zhang Q.-P.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology | Liu D.-C.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Liu S.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology | Liu N.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology | And 3 more authors.
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2014

The common apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is adaptable to the diverse geographical areas throughout northern China where the original center for common apricot is worldwide. The diversity of 94 apricot samples, including 66 typical Chinese local cultivars, four kernel-using apricots, thirteen cultivars of Xinjiang (belong to Central Asian groups), ten exotic cultivars and one black apricot (Prunus dasycarpa Ehrh.) accession, were investigated using 21 simple sequence repeat markers. Totally, 662 genotypes were identified in the set of tested 93 common apricot cultivars, with an average of 31.52 genotypes per locus. The allele diversity per locus, with an average allele number of 15.14, and the heterozygosity rates, with an average expected heterozygosity value for the sample set of 0.792, were found to be higher than those in previous studies, implying that Chinese apricot germplasms presented a high level of genetic diversity. The clustering analysis and principal coordinate analysis outlined the genetic relationships of apricot cultivars tested from different geographical distributions. The results supported the traditional classification of apricot germplasm based on the ecological types, and showed that the richest diversity existed in the northern China and northwestern China local cultivars among common apricot germplasm resources tested. This study will facilitate the understanding of the evolution relationships and the conservation strategies of the genetic diversity in apricot in China. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013.


Zhang Q.J.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology | Gu D.J.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology
Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2016

To improve the efficiency of breeding programs for Prunus rootstock hybrids in China, we analyzed the subgenus status and relationship of 10 Chinese rootstock species, by using 24 sets of simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. The SSR banding patterns and phylogenetic analysis indicated that subgenus Cerasus is more closely related to subgenus Prunophora than to subgenus Amygdalus, and that subgenus Lithocerasus is more closely related to subgenus Prunophora and subgenus Amygdalus than to subgenus Cerasus. In addition, Prunus triloba was more closely related to Prunus tomentosa than to the members of subgenus Amygdalus. Therefore, we suggest that P. tomentosa and P. triloba should be assigned to the same group, either to subgenus Lithocerasus or Prunophora, and we also propose potential parent combinations for future Prunus rootstock breeding. © 2016, American Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved.


Zhang Q.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology | Gu D.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology
HortScience | Year: 2015

An interspecific hybrid between Prunus tomentosa and P. salicina was produced through controlled pollination and confirmed by comparison of morphological characters and DNA markers. Morphological traits were intermediate between the two parents and fruit are much larger than that of P. tomentosa. Trees grafted on P. Tomentosa rootstock are compact, cold hardy, precocious, and productive. It is new and potentially useful stone fruit germplasm for commercial production and further breeding in Prunus. © 2015, American Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved.


Liu W.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology | Liu N.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology | Yu X.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology | Zhang Y.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

There are about ten species of apricot (Armeniaca Mill.) worldwide among which nine species are native to China. Above 2000 local apricot cultivars or types are investigated and recorded in the Chinese literature. Six hundred and forty-three accessions of apricot have been collected, conserved, identified, evaluated and documented up to now in the National Germplasm Repository for Plums and Apricots located in Xiongyue Town, Yingkou City, Liaoning Province of Northeastern China. In this paper, the history, distribution and production of apricot are reviewed; the botanical features and biological characteristics of ten species, as well as the important economic traits of the main local cultivars are briefly described. The research area and utilization of apricot germplasm resources in China are suggested.


Liu W.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology | Liu N.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology | Zhang Y.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology | Yu X.,Liaoning Institute of Pomology | And 4 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

According to the utilization method, apricot could be classed to three types as flesh-using, kernel-using and ornamental apricot in China. The kernel-using apricot, a special apricot resource native to north China with thin, little juicy, astringent flesh but large-size sweet kernel within the stone, is an important economic tree fruit in the arid climate and sandy soil area of north China. In the past two decades, the kernel-using apricot is also one of the most large-scale developing tree fruits in China, and this owing to not only the economic income from the sweet kernel but also the effect on water conservation, soil erosion and sandy prevention. The growing purpose is mainly for kernel consumption as its flesh is nearly inedible. The genetic origin, botanical features, economic importance, growing status, and future prospect are described and discussed in this paper.

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