Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources

Yingkou, China

Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources

Yingkou, China
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Kou W.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources | Zhang D.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources | Shao L.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources | Dong X.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources | And 4 more authors.
Applied Ecology and Environmental Research | Year: 2017

The composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) was examined, including water content, cellulose content, organic ingredients, etc. Throughout the anaerobic digestion of the organic waste, the characteristics of anaerobic acidifying bacteria, ammonifying bacteria, cellulose-degrading bacteria and methane bacteria were analyzed with respect to time and spatial distribution. The function of the microbial community and the relationship between the metabolites were analyzed as well. The results showed that in the initial stage of anaerobic fermentation of municipal waste, large amounts of oxygen in the reactor enabled aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria to proliferate and transform most of the raw material into organic matter. With the formation of the anaerobic, nutrient-rich environment the number of anaerobic bacteria began to rise. Anaerobic acidifying bacteria reached a maximum number sooner and remained higher than ammonifying bacteria. Methane bacteria did not proliferate during the startup phase; the peak concentration of 3.36×109/mL occurred at the 25th day, then remained stable. The anaerobic cellulose-decomposing bacteria grew slowly. Within the reactor, the numbers of anaerobic acidifying bacteria, anaerobic ammonifying bacteria and methane bacteria were higher in the middle and bottom positions; the anaerobic cellulose-decomposing bacteria proliferated at the bottom. In addition, the change trends of volatile fatty acids and ammonia nitrogen concentration were consistent with the spatial distribution of the bacteria. The VFA composition of biogas slurry was primarily butyric acid, indicating that butyric acid fermentation was the dominant process. © 2017, ALÖKI Kft., Budapest, Hungary.


Feng L.,Shenyang Aerospace University | Gao Y.,Shenyang Aerospace University | Kou W.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources | Lang X.,Liaoning Academy of Environmental science | And 5 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2017

This article proposes a methane production approach through sequenced anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste, determines the hydrolysis constants and reaction orders at both low total solid (TS) concentrations and high TS concentrations using the initial rate method, and examines the population growth model and first-order hydrolysis model. The findings indicate that the first-order hydrolysis model better reflects the kinetic process of gas production. During the experiment, all the influential factors of anaerobic fermentation retained their optimal values. The hydrolysis constants and reaction orders at low TS concentrations are then employed to demonstrate that the first-order gas production model can describe the kinetics of the gas production process. At low TS concentrations, the hydrolysis constants and reaction orders demonstrated opposite trends, with both stabilizing after 24 days at 0.99 and 1.1252, respectively. At high TS concentrations, the hydrolysis constants and the reaction orders stabilized at 0.98 (after 18 days) and 0.3507 (after 14 days), respectively. Given sufficient reaction time, the hydrolysis involved in anaerobic fermentation of kitchen waste can be regarded as a first-order reaction in terms of reaction kinetics. This study serves as a good reference for future studies regarding the kinetics of anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste. © 2017 Lei Feng et al.


Lei F.,Shenyang Aerospace University | Yuan G.,Shenyang Aerospace University | Wei K.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources | Rundong L.,Shenyang Aerospace University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Residuals Science and Technology | Year: 2016

The effect of initial total solid (TS) concentrations on the volume percent of methane and TAN contents from the anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste was studied in this paper by setting the initial TS as 4 wt%, 5 wt%, 6 wt%, 7 wt%. The inflection points of the cumulative biogas productions curve of different initial TS concentration took place at day 8,19 day, 17 day, 15 day, 9,20 day, respectively. The concentrations of methane generally rose firstly and then declined except that two different peaks (71.54% and 64.31%) of the methane volume percent were observed in day 15 and day 25 respectively under the condition of initial TS mass fraction of 4 wt%. The maximum methane volume percent under the condition of initial TS mass fraction of 5 wt%, 6 wt%, and 7 wt% was 76.7%, 73.93%, and 74.32% respectively in day 20. The TAN contents increased with the reaction time under the influence of varied initial TS contents. When the initial TS content was 4 wt%, 5 wt%, 6 wt%, and 7 wt%, the accumulated total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) content in day 30 was 1830, 2659, 2647, and 3040 mg/L respectively. © 2016 DEStech Publications, Inc.


Ye R.,Shenyang Aerospace University | Ye R.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources | Liu J.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources | Li X.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources | And 4 more authors.
Taiyangneng Xuebao/Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica | Year: 2016

Considering synthesis gas preparation as the target, the experiment on the gasification of sawdust with steamoxygen enriched air is carried out in a bubbling fluidized bed with the directional target of improving the H/C. The effect of air equivalence ratio (ER), steam to biomass ratio (S/B) and oxygen concentration (OC) on the gas compositions and H2/CO(H/C) were investigated. Results showed that under the condition of same OC and S/B, the higher the ER within a certain range, the wider the experiment of S/B affordable range is, the higherthe target parameter H/C are; The H/C is mainly affected by S/B and OC; In theself-heating bubbling bed with steam-oxygen enriched air gasification process, the optimum process conditions for synthesis gas is: OC in the range of 60%-70%, ER in the range of 0.33-0.38, S/B is about 0.56, thecorresponding optimum H/C is 1.13. © 2016, Editorial Board of Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica. All right reserved.


Yu M.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources | Gu S.,ShenYang Agricultural University | Yu Y.,Yingkou Environmental Assessment Ltd. | Dong Y.,The Geological Society of Liaoning Province | And 3 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2016

The wet anaerobic fermentation technology generates a large amount of biogas slurry. Biogas slurry treatment is the bottleneck of anaerobic fermentation technology development. In addition, according to past experience and theoretical calculation, maintaining an adequate liquid anaerobic fermentation temperature consumes about 30% of the system capacity. In winter, it even reaches 45% in the northern cold regions. This limits the anaerobic fermentation technology development greatly in northern cold region. The dry anaerobic fermentation technology, on the other hand, does not produce biogas slurry, and its residue is easy to be processed into the organic fertilizer. The level of the moisture content of China municipal waste is especially suitable for dry anaerobic digestion. However, the dry fermentation technology is relatively new, and the system control is more difficult than liquid fermentation. From that perspective, research on development of anaerobic dry fermentation devices is the key for the success of the technology. The features of designed vertical continuous dry fermentation equipment include stir heat up adjustment tank, multipoint distribution feed, vertical anaerobic fermentation tank and slurry reflux mixing process. Altogether, the fermentation system can process high volume of solid organic waste and produce biogas. The vertical continuous dry fermentation equipment mainly included the stir heat up regulating tank, feed pump, vertical anaerobic fermentation tank and discharge pump. A reflux inlet and fresh organic waste material inlet at the top of stir heat up regulating tank were set up, the bottom of stir heat up regulating tank was connected to the vertical anaerobic fermentation tank through the feed pump. An air outlet at the top of fermentation tank was set up which was connected to the gas pipeline. The discharge port on the bottom, the biogas slurry and residue that outflowed from discharge port was divided into two paths by discharging pump and first adjust the control valve. One path was connected to reflux inlet of stir heat up regulating tank, the other was the residue export connected to the discharge piping. We expected that such design could realize a quick start for biogas generation without stirring and heating in anaerobic reactor, and without adding water consumption during the process. We also expected that such device could save energy, reduce the volume of biogas slurry residue, protect the environment, and reduce the cost. The top of the vertical anaerobic fermentation tank using multipoint feeding distribution way facilitated more uniform distribution of fermentation raw materials. The internal temperature in the fermentation tank without stirring and heating device was maintained by continuous in and out of the hot materials. We used the reactor to conduct fermentation experiment to study the effect of slurry reflux and gas characteristics by comparing with a control group. The VFA (volatile fatty acid) content of application reflux was reduced, and the VFA content was minimum by reflux ratio of 1:7. When C/N ratio was close to 25:1, there was no ammonia nitrogen accumulation and gas production was the best. The high reflux ratio of 1:8-1:9 appeared to have a certain extent accumulation of VFA content. The flux ratio at 1:9 was the highest for generating biogas slurry quantity, and the VFA accumulation phenomenon was the most obvious, which reached 7822.4 mg/L. At the same time, high ammonia concentration inhibited biogas production. In conclusion, with a high clinker backflow, the anaerobic fermentation system would be suppressed. The slurry reflux had no significant influence in methane content. © 2016, Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All right reserved.


Yu H.,Shenyang University of Technology | Chen S.,Shenyang University of Technology | Jiang Y.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources | Jin S.,Shenyang University of Technology | Bai Q.,Shenyang University of Technology
Materials Research Innovations | Year: 2014

Based on the thermal damage experiment in a laboratory, the damage variation versus temperature is analysed. A thermal damage model is established, which can be used to calculate damage field and stress field of concrete dam with damage character considered. The damage counter lines for 50 years during the operation period are given. The results show that the maximum of damage and the maximum of thermal stress were at the same place, where was the dam downstream surface. So, the dam downstream surface may crack easily. © 2014 W. S. Maney & Son Ltd.


Liu J.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources | Wang G.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources | Li X.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources | Meng F.,ShenYang Agricultural University | Zhang D.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources
Taiyangneng Xuebao/Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica | Year: 2013

The pilot scale experiment on wood oxygen rich gasification in a down draft gasifier was carried out. The influence of the different gasified medium and oxygen concentration and temperature of gasification was studied. The reason of the gas heat value rise when the oxygen rich gasification was used and influence factors of CO2 gas from the gasification. The result showed that the gas heat value presented the trend of rise along with the increase of oxygen rich concentration at least double for the air gasification. The CO, H2 increased obviously, however the gasheat value do not rise as the oxygen rich concentration exceed 90%; The contents of CO2 was influence by oxygen concentration and ER; The effect of ER on gasification temperature and gas heat value; And conclude the proper temperature of gasification were 1100°C, in view of material characteristic and limit of equipment material.


Yi K.,China Criminal Police College | Cao Y.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources | Li J.,China Criminal Police College | Xu Z.,China Criminal Police College | And 2 more authors.
Chemistry Bulletin / Huaxue Tongbao | Year: 2014

The determination of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in soy has been carried out by derivative spectrophotometry. 5-HMF reacted with 2-thiobarbituric acid in strong acid medium, and then was determined at the wavelength of 414 nm. The analytical results indicated that the method is high accuracy, and good precision and sensitivity. The linear range was 0.5-4 μg/mL with correlation coefficient of 0.9995. The method can satisfy the requirement of quantitative determination in food security area.


Yu M.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources | Zhang D.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources | Li Y.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources | Dong X.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources | And 2 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2015

The organic waste mainly refers to the solid waste that is generated by residents' daily life. If the organic waste is converted into energy through anaerobic digestion, it will reduce the adverse impact on the environment and contribute to reduction in consumption of fossil fuel. Analysis of the space and time differences of various kinds of microbial community in fermentation process, plays a very important role for controlling the fermentation process effectively, understanding the fermentation stage, optimization of fermentation conditions and improving the efficiency of biogas production. This paper investigated the temporal and spatial distribution of microbial community during the semi-dry fermentation of organic waste, and studied the relationship of acid production, methane production and ammonia production using most probable number (MPN). The experiment used anaerobic fermentation under one-time charging medium temperature (37℃), and designed six sampling positions. The inoculum was biogas slurry fermented with pig manure, and the concentration was 30%, pH value was adjusted to 7.0 before anaerobic fermentation. The results showed that, in the early stage of organic waste anaerobic fermentation, large amounts of air existed in the reactor, and there was less number of anaerobic bacteria. With the formation of the anaerobic environment and rich nutrients, the number of anaerobic bacteria began to rise. The anaerobic acidification bacteria and anaerobic ammonification bacteria proliferated earliest, and the acidification bacteria was prior to reach maximum than ammonification bacteria and occupied the dominant position. The methane bacteria didn't proliferate at the start-up phase, they enter the fast growth stage after 15 days, and the peak value was 3. 24×109 mL-1 on the 25th day. In the gas peak decline period, the number of anaerobic ammonification bacteria and anaerobic acidification bacteria began to decline, however, the methane bacteria number kept on the order of magnitude in the whole period. The anaerobic cellulose-decomposing bacteria grew slowly, and the number was only 106 mL-1 on the 45th day. In the space, numbers of anaerobic acid bacteria and methane bacteria in the central part were more than those at the edge, and the numbers in the bottom were more than on the top; the most number of anaerobic ammoniation bacteria grew in middle edge and center position; at the same height, the numbers of edge position were more than the center position basically. The anaerobic cellulose-decomposing bacteria began to proliferate in the bottom. The number of the anaerobic bacteria on the top was lower than other places, due to the residual air on the top that was not conducive to the growth of anaerobic bacteria. In the reactor design, intermediate feed may be given priority to, edges feed was complementary, which was conducive to make full use of fermentation materials, and to improve the efficiency of the reactor. The dynamic model of anaerobic acidification bacteria and methanogens distribution differences was constructed preliminarily, and the correlation coefficients of fitting model were 0.824 and 0.939, respectively. The established model could predict effectively, and could provide the appropriate reference value of semi-dry anaerobic fermentation technology. The applicability of the model still requires further test to verify, therefore, the reactor enlarged gradually can be used for further study and parameters correction. This paper has theoretical significance for the technological processes of biogas production from organic waste. ©, 2015, Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All right reserved.


Cao Y.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources | Shao L.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources | Zhang H.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources | Kou W.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources | And 2 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2014

Corn straw is one of the most abundant agricultural and forest residues containing cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. About 2.24×108 tons of corn straw are produced per year in china, most of which is burned or lost in farmland, and only a small part is used as feed for livestock. Because corn straw is abundant in cellulose, it can be used as a substitute for grain to produce fuel-ethanol, which can be a significant contribution for relieving the crisis of resource and foodstuff shortage. The process of producing fuel-ethanol includes pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, and distillation. Cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in corn straw form stable polymers, which hardly dissolve in water, dilute acid, dilute alkali, and most organic solutions. Each component interrelates with all the others. Because of the complex configuration, hemicellulose and lignin will hinder the degradation of cellulose. To utilize the cellulose, corn straw must be pretreated. To improve the reduction of sugar yield in corn straw, the hydrolysis method of using extremely low sulfuric acid followed by enzymolysis is employed to treat corn stalk. To investigate the mechanism of reducing sugar conversion in acid hydrolysis and enzymolysis, the yield of totally reduced sugar, glucose and xylose was analyzed with acid hydrolysis followed by enzymolysis under different acid concentrations, temperatures and reaction times. Acid concentrations 0.1%, 160°C, 55 min, 180 r/min, solid-liquid ratio 1:10 was confirmed by orthogonal experiment. Through acid hydrolysis followed by enzymolysis (enzyme 5.0%, pH 4.6, 24 h, 50°C), the yield of totally reduced sugar, glucose, and xylose was 56.22%, 16.97% and 18.83%, respectively. The concentration of totally reduced sugar, glucose, and xylose was 62.46, 18.85 and 20.92 g/L, respectively. After acid hydrolysis and enzymolysis treatment, the corn stalk component was analyzed by infrared spectral and the Van Soest methods. The conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose was 88.52% and 95.18%, respectively. The conversion of totally reduced sugar, glucose, and xylose was 88.11%, 44.86% and 72.49%, respectively. Extremely low acid pretreatment can hydrolyze hemicellulose into monosaccharides and degrade the crystalline structure of cellulose. The pretreated cellulose with high porosity can be hydrolyzed by cellulose efficiently. This method can avoid degradation of monosaccharides, improve reduced sugar yield and increase the conversion efficiency of corn straw cellulose.

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