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Lun X.,Shenyang Aerospace University | Kou W.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | Zhao Y.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | Gu S.,ShenYang Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Environmental Engineering | Year: 2013

The corn straw was pretreated by expansion technology. Orthogonal experiment was designed by choosing conversion rate of reducing sugar as influence value basing on the single factor experiment. The influences of temperature, pH, liquid-solid ratio, enzyme concentration and time on the cellulose enzyme solution process were studied. Results showed that the optimum conditions were as follows: enzymolysis temperature of 48°C, pH of 4.5, liquid-solid ratio of 8:1, enzyme concentration of 36.0 U/g, enzymolysis time of 25 h. The conversion rate of reducing sugar is 28.98% under the conditions. The enzymolysis of cellulose of corn straw is complete after expansion pretreatment by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The characteristic peak of cellulose in enzymolysis process changes obviously after expansion pretreatment by infrared spectrum.


Wu C.,Shenyang Aerospace University | Wu C.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | Wu R.,Zhengzhou University | Liu Y.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | And 4 more authors.
Taiyangneng Xuebao/Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica | Year: 2016

The corn stalk was pretreated by acid and alkali. The orthogonal experiment was designed by choosing conversion rate of reducing sugar as influence value based on the single factor experiment. The influence of temperature, pH value, liquid-solid ratio, enzyme concentration and time on the cellulose enzyme solution process was studied. The results showed that the optimum condition was as follows: enzymolysis temperature of 48℃, pH value of 4.6, liquidsolid ratio of 20, enzyme concentration of 55 U/g, enzymolysis time of 44 h, the conversion rate of reducing sugar was 80.97% under the process condition. The characteristic peak in infrared spectrum of cellulose group in enzymolysis process changes obviously after acid and alkali pretreatment. © 2016, Editorial Board of Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica. All right reserved.


Kou W.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | Zhao Y.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | Yan C.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | Li S.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | And 2 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2010

In order to improve fermentable reducing sugar yield of corn straw, corn straw lignocellulose was pretreated by expansion technology. Scanning electron microscope pictures showed that the corn straw fibre bundle was destroyed and the wrapped function of lignin was weaken, so that to improve space effect of cellulase. Infrared spectrum analysis showed that some hemicellulose and small amounts of lignin were hydrolysed. X-ray diffraction showed the crystalline degree of cellulose decreased by 12.68%, respectively. By means of further cellulose enzyme solution experiment, expansion treatment of raw material's enzymolysis time could be reduced 16 h. Without expansion material's reducing sugar productivity was 13.48%, and expanded material's reducing sugar productivity was 24.91%. The results show that the expansion pretreatment technology can obviously increase the corn straw lignocellulose energy-oriented utilization efficiency. The experiment provided a basis for further research on expanded corn straw enzymolysis.


Wang X.-M.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | Shao L.-J.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | Cao Y.-X.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | Zhang H.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | And 3 more authors.
Huaxue Gongcheng/Chemical Engineering (China) | Year: 2015

In order to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis rate of corn straw, corn straw was pretreated by expansion pretreatment. The experiment was designed with ethanol mass concentration as influence value. Orthogonal experiment was conducted based on the single factor experiment. The influences of time, nitrogen content, temperature and two yeast ratio were studied. When the fermentation time was 48 h, (NH4)2SO4 was 0.25%(mass fraction), temperature was 33 ℃, the optimum volume ratio of S. cerevisiae and P. stipitis was 3∶7, ethanol mass concentration was 10.2 g/L. The process of this study provides the reference for realizing the industrialization of corn straw. ©, 2015, Editorial Office of Chemical Engineering (China). All right reserved.


Kou W.,ShenYang Agricultural University | Kou W.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | Cao Y.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | Zhang D.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | And 3 more authors.
Taiyangneng Xuebao/Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica | Year: 2014

Analysis the reducing sugar conversion characteristic of corn straw which has been treated once and twice machine expansion process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) microscopic surface structure showed that the structure of the straw significantly has been loosed after expansion treatment; X Ray Diffraction analysis showed that the crystallization degree of once and twice machine expansion material decreases 14.14% and 21.61%, respectively. Infrared spectral analysis cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin chemical groups, the characteristics of their structure have all changed certainly. Further enzymolysis sugar conversion testing showed that the once and twice machine expansion material's reducing sugar productivity are 0.24 g/g and 0.29 g/g, respectively. Analyzed enzymolysis sugar liquid of twice expansion material by Ion Chromatography concluded that glucose is 72.12% in total sugar, and xylose is 22.63%. Calculation showed the cellulose sugar conversion is about 70%, hemicelluloses sugar conversion is about 30%.


Gu S.,ShenYang Agricultural University | Xiong J.,ShenYang Agricultural University | Kou W.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | Yi K.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | And 3 more authors.
ICAE 2011 Proceedings: 2011 International Conference on New Technology of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2011

The physical-chemical properties of corn stalk were comparatively investigated after 1% of sulfuric acid, 2% of sodium hydroxide and expansion pretreatments, and then their effect on producing biogas of the treated corn stalk were assessed. Three physical-chemical indicators including the reducing sugar yield, the organic components and the microstructures revealed by scanning electron microscopy were detected in this study. The results showed that the conversion rate of the reducing sugar of corn stalk treated with 1% of sulfuric acid was the highest (17.8%), the startup speed of anaerobic zymolysis of corn stalk treated with 2% of sodium hydroxide was the fastest, and the total effect on producing biogas of corn stalk treated with expansion method was the best. The daily gas production rate of corn stalk after expansion pretreatment reached 0.63 m3•m-3•d-1, the 60d total gas production rate reached 5.89 m3•m-3, and the methane content come up to 82.9%. The results obtained in this paper provide a new and effective method to improve by a large amount the biogas yield of corn stalk. © 2011 IEEE.


Li Y.,ShenYang Agricultural University | Li L.,Shijiazhuang Hongyi Energy Saving and Environmental Protection Technology Co. | Zhang D.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | Gu S.,ShenYang Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2012

Based on the early single factor test, quadratic regression orthogonal rotating combination design was applied. The whole gas production was taken as response value. Effects of four factors on anaerobic fermentation were studied. These four factors are the ratio of food garbage and cow dung, temperature, pH value and the ratio of inoculum and quality of fermentation. The mathematical mode about mixed fermentation of food garbage and cow dung was established, regression equation was optimized and analyzed, in addition, the optimal condition and interactive effects were exposed. The optimum technological conditions for the mixed-fermentation was as the followings: the ratio of food garbage and cow dung was 2.5, temperature was 37.5°C, the pH value was 7.0 and the ratio of inoculum volume and quality of fermentation was 4.The order of the influence of four factors on mixed-fermentation of food garbage and cow dung was as follows: the ratio of inoculum and quality of fermentation, temperature, the ratio of food garbage and cow dung, and pH value. The gas production of the optimum technological condition and the random experiment also showed no significant difference with the predictive value. The model fitted well.


Kou W.,ShenYang Agricultural University | Kou W.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | Zhang H.,Shenyang Aerospace University | Sun Y.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | And 3 more authors.
Taiyangneng Xuebao/Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica | Year: 2015

According to north cold area climate. Consider the heat loss factors in biogas engineering, including heat dissipation of tank different parts, heat loss on material exchange, and heating pipe dissipation etc. Researched on boiler, solar energy, and power waste heat warming method, and the energy efficiency of these methods were analyzed. Take Shuangcheng city biogas project for case, calculated the total energy lossing of different factors. Obtained that heat energy losing in winter and annual average day were 14694.39 MJ and 12185.68 MJ respectively. Through analysis the warming methods, concluded that the project need 3887.20 MJ and 1377.36 MJ for project running in winter and annual. Calculated losing and biogas heat energy, obtained winter and annual biogas energy efficiency were 43.12% and 52.84% respectively. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.


Shao L.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | Kou W.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | Cao Y.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | Wu C.,Shenyang Aerospace University | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Environmental Engineering | Year: 2014

Cellulose and hemicellulase were used to degrade the corn straw pretreated by expanded in order to improve the sugar yield which compared with degraded only by cellulose. On basis of single factor experiment, and use reducing sugar yield as response value, optimization experiment was designed by response surface. By analysis of testing data, results showed that the best process for the expanded corn straw enzymatic hydrolysis was pH of 4.8, liquid to solid ratio of 13:1, hydrolysis time of 60 h, enzyme concentration of 6 g/L, temperature of 51℃. Compared with the results which degraded only by cellulase, the reducing sugar yield increased 14.3% and reached to 24%.The study of synergetic enzymatic hydrolysis provides a new way to degrade the lignocellulose material.


Cao Y.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | Kou W.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | Liu Q.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | Wang X.,Liaoning Institute of Energy Resource | And 5 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2013

In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel. Biodiesel production using waste cooking oil (WCO) is receiving increasing attention. However, the large range of free fatty acids (FFA) content has become the main drawback for the conversion of WCO into biodiesel with single procedure, and the lack of government management of WCO makes it difficult to collect feedstock in large scale, which reduces the economic feasibility of biodiesel. In order to satisfy the requirement for producing biodiesel in miniature, efficient biodiesel conversion from WCO with high FFA was achieved via a home-made biodiesel conversion equipment. There were four sorts of feedstocks for biodiesel production, including fried chicken oil, WCO1, WCO2 and WCO3, whose acid value were 10.2, 30.8, 45.6 and 80.0 mg/g, respectively. The reaction process was involved two procedures called A and B. The procedure A was an esterification reaction to decrease the acid value and moisture of feedstocks. It was carried out with reaction temperature 60°C, methanol 10%, H2SO4 1%, reaction time 5 h, and then some byproducts were separated from the reaction mixture. The conversion rate of FFA of feedstocks was above 90% through procedure A. An orthogonal design was applied to optimize main performance parameters for the transestrification reaction of procedure B. The procedure B started with an acidic catalysis with reaction temperature 60°C, methanol 4%, H2SO4 0.1%, reaction time 5 h, followed by a basic catalysis with methanol 12%, NaOH 0.8%, reaction time 1.5 h, and then some byproducts were separated from the reaction mixture. Final product was obtained through water washing using 70 L of water. The separation of byproducts and water from the mixture reaction was accomplished by electrostatic layered process which decreased the separation time from 12 h to 1 h. The procedure B was adopted for WCO with low acid value and moisture content. With high acid value and moisture content, procedure A was used to reduce acid value, and then procedure B was utilized to complete biodiesel conversion. The equipment with unique reaction procedure can produced biodiesel from WCO with large range of acid values. The output of equipment was about 400 L/d. The yields of biodiesel from fried chicken oil, WCO1, WCO2 and WCO3 were 97.6%, 95.9%, 95.4% and 95.5%, respectively. The quality indexes of biodiesel production from fried chicken oil and WCO2 met GB\T20828-2007 except oxidation stability and total glycerin content. The oxidation stability was lower than the standard value, which could be solved by adding antioxidant. The total glycerin content was slight higher than the standard value, which could be solved by prolonging separation time. The study provided a new approach for producing biodiesel from WCO in small scale.

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