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Zhang X.,Nanjing University | Jiang H.,Nanjing University | Jiang H.,Zhejiang Agriculture And forestry University | Zhang Q.,Liaoning Environmental Monitoring Center | Zhang X.,Beijing Normal University
Atmospheric Research | Year: 2012

The samples of rainwater were collected at two urban sites and one rural site in Dalian from January to December 2007, and precipitation pH, conductivity, and main chemical components were analyzed. The dominant ions in rainwater were SO 4 2-, NO 3 -, NH 4 +, Cl -, Ca 2+ and Na +, which accounted for 92.03% of the total ions. Winter and spring had high concentrations of chemical components, while autumn and summer had relative low values. The dominant neutralization substances were NH 4 +, Ca 2+, and Mg 2+, and presented relatively lower neutralization capability than the other major acid rain city in north China. This caused precipitation was typically acidic with pH 4.79. Downtown has obvious lower precipitation pH, higher electrical conductivity value, higher concentrations of chemical components, and higher neutralizing capability than rural area. Furthermore, the possible common sources of major ions were identified based on backward trajectory analysis, correlation analysis, and source contribution. It presented that the chemical ion concentrations were influenced not only by local emissions but also transferred materials by wind from remote areas. SO 4 2-, NO 3 -, and NH 4 + were mainly from human activities, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, and K + were soil derived, Na + and Cl - were marine source, and the contribution of anthropogenic activities was also considerable for Cl -. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Kong S.,Key Laboratory of Urban Ambient Air Particulate Matter Pollution Prevention and Control | Kong S.,Nankai University | Shi J.,Key Laboratory of Urban Ambient Air Particulate Matter Pollution Prevention and Control | Shi J.,Nankai University | And 10 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2011

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons within PM10 fraction of ashes from two coke production plants, one iron smelt plant, one heating station and one power plant were analyzed with GC-MS technique in 2009. The sum of 17 selected PAHs varied from 290.20 to 7055.72 μg/g and the amounts of carcinogenic PAHs were between 140.33 and 3345.46 μg/g. The most toxic ash was from the coke production plants and then from the iron smelt plant, coal-fired power plant and heating station according to BaP-based toxic equivalent factor (BaPeq) and BaP-based equivalent carcinogenic power (BaPE). PAHs profile of the iron smelt ash was significantly different from others with coefficient of divergence value higher than 0.40. Indicatory PAHs for coke production plants, heating station and coal-fired power plant were mainly 3-ring species such as Acy, Fl and Ace. While for iron smelt plant, they were Chr and BbF. Diagnostic ratios including Ant/(Ant + Phe), Flu/(Flu + Pyr), BaA/Chr, BbF/BkF, Ind/BghiP, IND/(IND + BghiP), BaP/BghiP, BaP/COR, Pyr/BaP, BaA/(BaA + Chr), BaA/BaP and BaP/(BaP + Chr) were calculated which were mostly different from other stacks for the iron smelt plant. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Wen Q.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Wen Q.,Liaoning Environmental Monitoring Center | Li X.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Li X.,East China Normal University | And 7 more authors.
Chinese Geographical Science | Year: 2014

Traditionally, patch-based analysis at the landscape scale fragmentation has been used in the study of landscape ecology while the study of boundary and node has not been considered as much detail until recently. This study investigated the possibility of applying boundary- and node-based methods in landscape pattern analysis to the upper reaches of the Minjiang River in the southwestern China. Boundary-based and node-based landscape indices were selected to be used in analyzing changes in landscape patterns, and the results were compared with analysis using traditional pattern indices. We compared the responses of patch-area-based, boundary-length-based and node-number-based indices, and concluded that boundary-based and node-based indices are more sensitive to disturbance than patch-based indices with various patterns, and node-based indices are even more sensitive than boundary-based ones. Thus, the results suggest that boundary-based and node-based pattern analysis methods provide helpful supplementary information to traditional patch-based pattern analysis methods. The results about pattern dynamics of landscapes in the upper reaches of the Minjiang River based on boundaries and nodes showed that with human disturbance, the dominance of forest landscape was weakened by other landscape types; thus the landscape pattern of the study area became more homogeneous and the boundary network became more complex. These changes further augmented disturbance interfaces in the landscape and increased the possibilities of further landscape fragmentation. © 2014 Science Press, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Zhang X.,Nanjing University | Jiang H.,Nanjing University | Jiang H.,Zhejiang Agriculture And forestry University | Jin J.,Nanjing University | And 2 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2012

Acid rain is a major regional-scale environmental problem in China. To control acid rain pollution and to protect the ecological environment, it is urgent to document acid rain patterns in various regions of China. Taking Liaoning Province as the study area, the present work focused on the spatial and temporal variations of acid rains in northeastern China. It presents a means for predicting the occurrence of acid rain using geographic position, terrain characteristics, routinely monitored meteorological factors and column concentrations of atmospheric SO2 and NO2. The analysis applies a decision tree approach to the foregoing observation data. Results showed that: (1) acid rain occurred at 17 stations among the 81 monitoring stations in Liaoning Province, with the frequency of acid rain from 0 to 84.38%; (2) summer had the most acid rain occurrences followed by spring and autumn, and the winter had the least; (3) the total accuracy for the simulation of precipitation pH (pH ≤ 4.5, 4.5 < pH ≤ 5.6, and pH > 5.6) was 98.04% using the decision tree method known as C5. The simulation results also indicated that the distance to coastline, elevation, wind direction, wind speed, rainfall amount, atmospheric pressure, and the precursors of acid rain all have a strong influence on the occurrence of acid rains in northeastern China. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhang L.-J.,Nanjing University | Zhang X.-Y.,Nanjing University | Jiang H.,Nanjing University | Jiang H.,Zhejiang Agriculture And forestry University | Zhang Q.-X.,Liaoning Environmental Monitoring Center
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2013

To understand the origin and chemical characteristics of precipitation in Shenyang, about 25 rainwater samples were collected in 2007. The pH of samples varied from 4.89 to 8.02, with the volume-weighted average of 6.89. The results showed that the concentration of the sum of anions and cations in Shenyang was higher than those in southern cities such as Hangzhou, whereas the acidification of rainwater was not very serious in Shenyang. The volume-weighted average concentrations of SO42- and Cl- were 330.00 μeq·L-1 and 85.05 μeq·L-1, with the percent contribution to anions of 60.32% and 15.55%, respectively. Ca2+ and NH4+ were the main cations with contribution of 49.51% and 29.78%, respectively. The seasonal variations of ions showed that the concentrations were higher in autumn and winter than in spring and summer. Investigations of fractional acidity (FA), neutralization factors (NF), and correlation coefficients among ionic constituents indicated that high pH values were controlled by the neutralization caused by the alkaline materials but not by the absence of acidic materials. Results of NF indicated that NH4+ and Ca2+ were the dominant neutralization substances. Calculation of enrichment factors for rainwater components relative to soil and seawater indicated that SO42- and NO3- were mostly attributed by the anthropogenic activities, 53.1% of Cl- originated from sea sources, and NH4+ and K+ came from the soils and human activities.


Zhao Q.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Zhao Q.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Ma J.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Wen Q.-C.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Ecology and Rural Environment | Year: 2010

Aiming at the problem of lack of water monitoring data of medium and small river basins in the countryside of North China, a project was carried out based on the findings of field surveys and the local statistics yearbooks, to calculate agricultural non-point source pollution load of 10 administrative villages in Dasuhe Township, using the export coefficient method, and in verification of the data obtained in the field survey and their relationship with pollution load, evaluation of the pollution sources was done, using the equiscalar pollution loading method, to obtain comparative equiscalar pollution loads on the same scale. Cluster analysis of the findings and results were obtained. The 10 villages were divided into 4 types in terms of agricultural non-point source pollution, and characteristics of each pollution source was analyzed. Results of the evaluation show that the Dasuhe Village ranked first in contribution to the load of domestic pollution and livestock dejecta pollution, and the Xiaosuhe Village did in contribution of the load of farmland chemical fertilizer pollution. The cluster analysis also demonstrates that the mean value of the equiscalar pollution loads of the 4 types of agricultural nonpoint source pollution was 51. 05,95. 80,236. 41,185. 69 m3, which indicates that relative differences are exsiting between villages in agricultural non-point source pollution.


Li S.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Li S.,Shenyang Jianzhu University | Li S.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Shi T.-M.,Shenyang Jianzhu University | And 4 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2011

Based on the theory of landscape ecological security pattern and the RS and GIS tech-niques, this paper analyzed the distribution of ecological security grades in Nanchong City, taking six elements including terrain condition, flood hazard, soil erosion, vegetation cover, geological disaster, and biological protection as the ecological constraints (or determinants) of urban expan-sion. According to the minimum cumulative resistance model, the ecological corridors and ecologi-cal nodes were built to strengthen the space contact of ecological network, and, on the basis of the protection of ecological safety, the reasonable trend of urban expansion and the optimization of space layout were investigated. The results showed that the ecological security of Nanchong City was quite good, with the regions of low ecological security mainly distributed in the west suburban mountains and the downstream region of Jialing River in the south of the City. Ecological elements were the most important constraints for the future expansion of urban space. There were more spaces for the urban expansion in the southern and northern parts of Nanchong City. To develop satellite towns would be the best selection to guarantee the ecological security of the City.


Wen Q.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Wen Q.,Liaoning Environmental Monitoring Center | Chen X.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Shi Y.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | And 2 more authors.
Procedia Environmental Sciences | Year: 2011

The composition and spatial pattern of agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution was studied in Liaohe River basin which is representative of areas of intensive NPS pollution in Northeast China. Selecting COD and ammonia nitrogen as the major pollutants, the export coefficient method and GIS spatial analysis methods were utilized to analyze the component composition and spatial distribution characteristics of NPS pollution in Liao River basin. The results showed that farmland runoff was the most significant source for the agricultural NPS pollution in the study area. Over 60 percents of the pollution loading was distributed in the Liaohe River mainstream area, and the pollution intensities were stronger in Hunhe River downstream and Liaohe River stem downstream plain sub-basins in Central-Western Liaoning province than in Hunhe River upstream and Taizihe hilly sub-basins in eastern Liaoning province. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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