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Zhang Q.L.,Jilin University | Li J.P.,Jilin Agricultural University | Li Y.M.,Jilin University | Chang Q.,Jilin Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2013

Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) play important roles in neovascularization, tissue development, and angiogenesis. In this study, changes in VEGF expression patterns and microvessel density (MVD), and their correlations, were investigated during hair follicle development in epidermal appendages of Liaoning cashmere goats. Polyclonal antibodies to VEGF and microvessels were used for monthly immunohistochemical examinations of normal skin specimens from adult female goats for one year. VEGF was expressed in the hair bulb of primary and secondary hair follicles, the outer and inner root sheaths, sebaceous glands (ductal and secretory portions), eccrine sweat glands (ductal and secretory portions), and the epidermis. Abundant expression of VEGF was observed in the follicular basement membrane zone surrounding the bulb matrix and in ductal and secretory portions of eccrine sweat glands. The change in VEGFs in primary hair follicles showed a bimodal pattern, with the first peak observed from March to May, and the second in August. Maximal expression in secondary hair follicles occurred in May and August. Therefore, VEGF expression in primary and secondary hair follicles is synchronized throughout the year, and is correlated to hair development. In the later telogen and anagen phases, VEGF expression was higher in the secondary, compared to the primary, hair follicle. Changes in MVD also showed a bimodal pattern with peaks in May and August. VEGF expression and MVD showed moderate and strongly positive correlation in the primary and secondary hair follicles, respectively. Therefore, MVD and VEGF are closely related to the processes involved in hair cycle regulation. © FUNPEC-RP.


Zhou J.P.,China Agricultural University | Zhu X.P.,China Agricultural University | Zhang W.,China Agricultural University | Qin F.,China Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2011

The most important traits of Chinese Liaoning cashmere goat fiber are fiber diameter, weight, and length. We looked for polymorphisms and their possible association with cashmere fiber traits in the 5' upstream region (5' UTR) of the prolactin receptor gene (PRLR), which encodes an anterior pituitary peptide hormone involved in different physiological activities; it is the principal endocrine regulator in pelage replacement in mammals. A novel single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was found in the 5' UTR of PRLR by PCR-RFLP in an analysis of 590 goats. Two genotypes (CC and CT) were observed. The frequencies of allele C and T were 0.93 and 0.07, respectively. Association analysis revealed that the PRLR 5' UTR polymorphism (SNP5) was significantly associated with cashmere fiber weight and diameter. This novel SNP in hircine PRLR has potential as a molecular marker for cashmere fiber weight and diameter in Liaoning cashmere goats. © FUNPEC-RP.


Zhang Q.L.,Jilin University | Li J.P.,Jilin Agricultural University | Chen Y.,Jilin Agricultural University | Chang Q.,Jilin Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2014

Here, we studied hair follicle development of Liaoning Cashmere goats. Every month for 1 year, skin samples were collected from five 1.5-year-old female goats, and made into paraffin sections. A number of parameters were measured of primary and secondary hair follicles via microscopic observation including follicle depth, hair bulb width, dermis and epidermis thickness, changes in follicle activity, and histology. The results showed the presence of three phases in the annual hair cycle: anagen, catagen, and telogen. Primary and secondary hair follicle depth varied across the months; however, no significant difference was obtained between adjacent months (P > 0.05). Primary hair follicles had a bigger hair bulb width compared to secondary hair follicles; however, this difference declined during hair follicle developed in anagen. As hair follicle growth slowed, the hair bulb broadened, and hair root depth became shallower. During the entire hair cycle, hair follicle depth and dermis thickness were positively correlated; however, this relationship was not significant (P > 0.05) for primary and secondary hair follicle density and the ratio of secondary hair follicle density and primary hair follicle density (S/P ratio). In addition, new and old primary hair follicles coexisted with secondary hair follicles. Finally, secondary hair follicles had a higher activity rate compared to primary hair follicle in adult Liaoning Cashmere goats in certain months. © FUNPEC-RP.


Zhang W.,China Agricultural University | Zhang Y.,China Agricultural University | Zhang S.W.,Liaoning Cashmere Goat Breeding Center | Song X.Z.,Liaoning Cashmere Goat Breeding Center | And 2 more authors.
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2012

An experiment was conducted to investigate on the effects of different levels of copper (Cu: 0, 19, and 38 mg/kg) and molybdenum (Mo: 0 and 5 mg/kg) supplements and the interaction of these two factors on serum lipid profiles and antioxidant status in cashmere goats during the cashmere fiber growing period. Thirty-six Liaoning cashmere goats (approximately 1.5 years of age; 27.53±1.38 kg of body weight) were assigned to one of six treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 2×3 factorial arrangement. Goats were housed in individual pens and fed with Chinese wild rye- and alfalfa hay-based diet containing 4.72 mg Cu/kg, 0.16 mg Mo/kg, and 0.21% S for 84 days. Blood samples were collected on day 84. The triglyceride concentration did not differ among treatments (P>0.05). Supplemental Cu, regardless of Mo level, decreased (P<0.05) the concentrations of serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased (P<0.05) the concentration of serum high density lipopro-tein cholesterol, but there were no differences (P>0.05) in these values between Cu-supplemented groups. Supplemental Cu increased (P<0.05) the activities of serum cerulo-plasmin (Cp), Cu-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and decreased (P<0.05) the malondialdehyde content. The serum GSH-Px activity was also increased (P<0.05) by Mo supplementation. There was a tendency of the interaction effects of Cu and Mo on the activities of Cp (P00.094), SOD (P00.057), and GSH-Px (P00.062), and goats fed with 19 mg Cu/kg in the absence of Mo tended to show the highest serum SOD activity, while goats fed with 38 mg Cu/kg with 5 mg Mo/kg tended to show the highest values of serum Cp and GSH-Px. Addition of Cu, Mo, or their interaction had no influence (P>0.05) on the activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase, and the concentrations of serum glucose and total protein. In conclusion, addition of 19 mg Cu/kg in the absence of Mo (the total dietary Cu level of 23.72 mg/kg) was recommended for altering the fat metabolism and obtaining the optimal antioxidant activity of cashmere goats, while 38 mg Cu/kg should be supplemented when 5 mg Mo/kg was added in the basal diet (the total dietary level of 42.72 mg Cu/kg, 5.16 mg Mo/kg, and 0.21% S) during the cashmere growing period. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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