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Gu C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Gu C.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden | Wu J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Du Y.-H.,Liaoning Agricultural College | And 2 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology Reporter | Year: 2013

Many species in the families of Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and Scrophulariaceae exhibit gametophytic self-incompatibility, a phenomenon controlled by two polymorphic genes at the S-locus, style-S (S-RNase) and pollen-S (SFB). Sequences of both genes show high levels of diversity, characteristic of genes involved in recognition of self-incompatibility systems in plants. In this study, S24-RNase and SFB24 alleles were cloned from Prunus armeniaca cv. Chuanzhihong (Chinese apricot). Sequence comparisons of deduced amino acid sequences revealed that the P. armeniaca S24-haplotype has different SFB alleles, but shares a single S-RNase allele with P. armeniaca S4-haplotype. Moreover, P. armeniaca S24-RNase haplotype has a single and three different alleles with S1-RNase of P. tenella (dwarf almond) and S1-RNase of P. mira (smooth pit peach), respectively. The functionalities of SFB24 and SFB4 have been evaluated by pollen tube growth and controlled field tests of P. tenella and P. mira. Genetic analysis of the two intercrosses showed that progenies segregated 1:1 into two S-genotype classes, which is consistent with the expected ratio for semi-compatibility. These findings imply that the allelic function of the S24-haplotype is identical to that of the S4-haplotype in a self-incompatibility reaction. Thus, these two Prunus S-haplotypes are in fact two neutral variants of the same S-haplotype. The evolution of the S-allele is also discussed in terms of both functions and differences between S24- and S4-haplotypes in Prunus. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Jiang B.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jiang B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Jiang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2012

The character of branching for two chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium) cvs. Jinghai and Jingyun was observed, and the changes of endogenous hormones in apical and lateral buds were investigated to determine the relationship between the pattern of hormone distribution, apical dominance, and lateral bud outgrowth. The growth rate of Jinghai lateral buds was higher than that of Jingyun. In vegetative growth stage, IAA level in apical buds of Jingyun was significantly higher than in Jinghai. After flower induction, IAA level in apical buds of two cultivars decreased remarkably, but the IAA level decreased in Jingyun faster than in Jinghai. These results showed that the higher was the IAA level in apical buds the stronger was inhibition of lateral bud outgrowth. An increase in IAA and iP/iPA and a decrease in ABA concentrations were closely associated with lateral bud growth alterations in chrysanthemum. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Xu Y.,Technology Center | Cui L.,Northeast Forestry University | Tian C.,Liaoning Agricultural College | Li S.,Technology Center | And 3 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2012

A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay was developed to simultaneously detect Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Streptococcus hemolyticus and Staphylococcus aureus from foods. Six pairs of specific PCR primers were designed according to Salmonella invA, C. jejuni cdtA, L. monocytogenes pfrA, S. aureus femA, Y. enterocolitica 16S rRNA and St. hemolyticus cfb. Following the development of multiplex PCR, the PCR products were subjected to HPLC analysis. Unique HPLC peak profile for each PCR product represented corresponding bacterial strain, suggesting a better alternative to conventional PCR gel electrophoresis with ethidium bromide (EB) staining. The specificity analysis of the multiplex PCR-HPLC with 121 bacterial strains and 4 yeast strains showed that the method was highly specific for the target pathogens. One thousand and three hundred ninety-four blind samples were used to evaluate the practical diagnostic capability of the method, and results showed that eighty-eight food samples contaminated with single or multiple pathogens were detected by the method, which accorded with the testing results via conventional method. All data demonstrated that the multiplex PCR-HPLC is an efficient diagnostic method for rapid identification of the six foodborne pathogens. The simplicity and high sensitivity of the method may lead to improved management of food safety and foodborne diseases. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Zheng H.-Z.,Kyungpook National University | Zheng H.-Z.,Liaoning Agricultural College | Kim Y.-I.,Kyungpook National University | Chung S.-K.,Kyungpook National University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The physicochemicals associated with fruit quality, antioxidant activities and changes in polyphenol composition during Fuji apple growth were investigated from the 25th to 105th day after full bloom day (DAFB). Three kinds of antioxidant assays, including oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) were executed, and polyphenol composition were examined using HPLC. The change in weight of the Fuji apples during fruit growth showed a typical sigmoidal curve. Both the rise of the soluble solid content and the drop of the titratable acidity appeared to be more significant (p < 0.05) after the 85th DAFB. Concurrently, the antioxidant activities and the polyphenol content decreased (p < 0.05) rapidly after the same date. Accordingly, a profitable thinning date can be chosen around the 85th DAFB to utilise dropped unripe apples as resources of antioxidants. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of Fuji apples may be highly affected by the chlorogenic acid content. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lee H.-R.,Kyungpook National University | Hwang I.-W.,Kyungpook National University | Zheng H.-Z.,Kyungpook National University | Zheng H.-Z.,Liaoning Agricultural College | And 3 more authors.
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The proanthocyanidin fraction was isolated from the wild grape (Vitis amurensis) peel and its antioxidant capacities were examined to promote the utilization of wild grape by-products. The 70% acetone crude extract of the wild grape peel was fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, and water. The ethyl acetate fraction was applied to a Sephadex LH-20 column chromatograph, which was eluted with 50% methanol, 75% methanol, and 75% acetone. The proanthocyanidin characteristics and contents of the isolated fractions were investigated by the vanillin-H2SO4 and BuOHHCl methods. Fraction 6 had the highest proanthocyanidin content (49.35±2.75 g%) among the isolated fractions. The antioxidant activities of the proanthocyanidin fraction were examined by DPPH radical scavenging, FRAP assay, and total phenolic contents. The FRAP values and total phenolic contents of the fractions ranged from 3.54 to 32.25 mmol/kg and from 4.48 to 50.80 g/100 g, respectively. The proanthocyanidin contents was strongly correlated with DPPH radical scavenging activities, FRAP values, and total phenolic contents. © The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology.

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