Liaoning Academy of Forestry

Shenyang, China

Liaoning Academy of Forestry

Shenyang, China
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Wang B.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Wei W.J.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry | Liu C.J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | You W.Z.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Tropical Forest Science | Year: 2013

Bamboo forests are special forest resources in China with wide distribution, and important economic and ecological values. Of 500 bamboo species native to China, moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is the most important in the terms of distribution, timber and other economic values. In this study, we examined the variations in biomass carbon stock of moso bamboo forests across subtropical China using national forest resources inventory data (1977-2008), along with stand biomass data compiled from literature. Our results showed that the biomass carbon of moso bamboo forests ranged from 219.56 to 299.31 Tg ha-1, accounting for 4.7-5.9% of the total forest biomass carbon in China from 1977 till 2008. At stand level, mean biomass carbon was 70-85 Mg ha-1 in the northern and middle subtropical subregions, and 35-45 Mg ha-1 in the sout-west mountain and southern subtropical subregions. With high biomass carbon sequestration, along with the quick and low-cost regeneration, high growth rate, short rotation, high phytolith-occluded carbon content and high economic and ecological values, moso bamboo forest can play an important role in carbon sink forestry in subtropical regions of China. © Forest Research Institute Malaysia.


Wang B.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Wang B.,Chinese Forest Ecosystem Research Network | Wei W.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry | Xing Z.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry | And 4 more authors.
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2012

Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) is one of the most important indigenous tree species in China. Owing to their rapid growth, good timber quality and short rotation time, increasing numbers of plantations are being established with successive rotations. Numerous competing hypotheses have been described to explain the decline in yield that occurs with successive rotations of the plantations. In addition, there are some uncertainties regarding the changes and characteristics of biomass carbon pools in Chinese fir forests in subtropical China, and information is lacking regarding how to improve carbon sequestration by this biomass sink. The total biomass carbon stock of the Chinese fir forest in China increased from 91.57 Tg C in 1977-1981 to 238.50 Tg C in 2004-2008, accounting for 2.48-4.32% of the national forest biomass carbon in the corresponding period. Due to the decreased yield during successive rotation for Chinese fir plantations before the 1990s, the biomass carbon stock of Chinese fir forests decreased in several regions in China during the 1980s and 1990s, and increased in the 2000s when several silvicultural measures were implemented to improving the quality of Chinese fir plantations. When compared with the age-based volume to biomass (V-B) method of determining biomass carbon stock in Chinese fir forests in Jiangxi Province, the site specific-based and the mixed forests-based scenarios would both help offset CO 2 emissions by sequestrating more CO 2 from the atmosphere. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Niu X.,Beijing Forestry University | Niu X.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Wang B.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Liu S.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | And 3 more authors.
Ecological Complexity | Year: 2012

China is an important country in the world in terms of forestry and the function of its forest ecosystem. It is an essential issue to account the value of the forest ecosystem services (FESs) of China in both ecological economy and environmental policy making. However, a big challenge exists because of the variety in climate types, forest vegetation, and silvicultural measures. In the current study, the monetary value of some important China's FESs, such as water conservation, soil conservation, carbon sequestration and oxygen release, nutrient accumulation, atmosphere environment purification, and biodiversity conservation, was estimated to be about 10.01 trillion RMB/year (1.48 trillion US dollars/year) in 2008, wherein the largest fraction was water conservation (40.51%). A four-fold variation used to exist in the FESs per unit area by the provinces which are geographically used as assessing units. This value of FESs was about 33% of the gross domestic product (GDP) of China in 2008. The values of FESs are unevenly distributed across the country, decoupling from GDP among different provinces. The value of China's FESs will continue to have a fast increasing trend due to massive forestation in the future decades. Beyond that, it is clear that how much ecological benefits human obtained from forest, what kind of ecological benefits offered by forest, and which are predominant or potential FESs types in province under different natural and social conditions according to ecological location quotient (ELQ). Compared with the Engel's coefficient (EC) of individual and the willingness to pay index (WTP) of governmental to FESs, we can conclude that insofar as we have a thorough understanding of the value and functions of FESs, and bring the government WTP and individual EC into full play, and promote the high environmental protection consciousness, it will have large potential WTP for improving the environment quality based on the low level WTP of the government in reality. Moreover, these results show important implications in making a policy for ecological complementary on the national scale in China and in assessing FESs in other countries, and will be useful to scientists, managers, policy makers and people who are concerned with relationship between human and natural systems. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Liu W.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Liu W.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Liu M.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Li W.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | And 2 more authors.
Linye Kexue/Scientia Silvae Sinicae | Year: 2016

Objective: Larix spp.-Panax ginseng agroforestry system has significant economic benefits, and is one of the typical management models in the eastern part of Liaoning Province. However, there was no study on the influence of this model on forest ecosystem services. The paper compares the Larix spp.-Panax ginseng agroforestry system with Larix spp. plantation and natural secondary forest, and aims to illuminate the influence of this model on plant diversity and carbon stock which are significant to the global. Method: Through field investigation, sampling, experimental and statistical analysis, a comparative analysis was carried out on trees and herbaceous plant diversity, and carbon stock of trees, understory, litter and dead woody debris (DWD), and 0-30 cm soil layer for the three stand types whose stand characteristics are similar. Result: In the Larix spp.-Panax ginseng agroforestry system, ginseng has an obvious advantage whose importance value was 0.33. For tree species, the Margalef index (R), the Shannon index (H') and Pielou's equitability index (E) decreased in the order of NS, LG, and LP. For herbaceous species, H', E, and R decreased in the order of NS, LP, and LG. In addition, the S, H' and R in the Larix spp.-Panax ginseng agroforestry system were respectively 16, 1.91, and 1.83, which all lower than the Larix spp. plantation whose S, H', and R were respectively 17, 2.1, and 2.04, and the difference was not significant. However, the E was significantly lower than theLarix spp. plantation. For carbon stock, the 32 years old Larix spp. plantation was 192.81 t·hm-2, which was slightly higher than that of the natural secondary forest, and they were both significantly higher than Larix spp.-Panax ginseng agroforestry which was 155.56 t·hm-2. In addition, the carbon stock of trees and soil accounted for more than 90% of the total carbon stock. For the carbon stock in the different layers, from high to low were separately soil, arbor, litter and DWD, understory; for different stand types, soil carbon stock all decreased along the depth within 0-30 cm, furthermore, the soil carbon stock of the natural secondary forest was 109.41 t·hm-2, which was slightly higher than that of Larix spp. plantation, whose soil carbon stock was 102.92 t·hm-2, and both of them were significantly higher than the soil carbon stock of Larix spp.-Panax ginseng agroforestry. Conclusion: Larix spp.-Panax ginseng agroforestry system has no obvious influence on arbor diversity, but it has an obvious influence on herbaceous diversity. And it leads to a significant decrease of carbon stock compared to the other two stand types. Therefore, we should pay attention to the in-depth study, scientific development, rational planning, correct guidance and the combination of economic and ecological benefits of Larix spp.-Panax ginseng agroforestry in the future. Only in this way, can we ensure the sustainable utilization of forest resources and the sustainable development of Larix spp.-Panax ginseng agroforestry system. © 2016, Editorial Department of Scientia Silvae Sinicae. All right reserved.


You W.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry | Wei W.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry | Zhang H.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry | Yan T.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry | Xing Z.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry
Trees - Structure and Function | Year: 2013

There is little information available regarding seasonal and annual variations in soil CO2 efflux from Korean Larch plantations, which are an important component of forests' carbon balance in temperate China. In this study, the soil respiration rate (R s), soil temperature (T 10) and soil moisture (SM10) at 10 cm depth were observed in a Korean Larch (Larix olgensis Herry.) plantation in Northeast China from 2008 to 2012. Mean R s in growing season (GS) varied greatly, ranged from 2.32 ± 0.08 to 3.88 ± 0.09 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 (mean ± SE) over the period of 2008-2012. In comparison with T-model, the increase of explained variability by applying both T 10 and SM10 to the T-M model is very small. It is indicated that R s was controlled largely by T 10 in the present study. By accounting for 22.2 and 17.7 % of the total soil CO2 emissions in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012, respectively, the soil CO2 efflux in dormant season (DS) was an essential component of the total soil CO2 efflux. The Q 10 value in the study period was always smaller for GS than DS, suggesting that soil carbon cycling may be more sensitive to the temperature changes at low than at high temperature range. These results indicated that climate changes may have great potential impacts on temperate Larch plantations in Northeast China, owing to soil carbon emissions of Larch plantation during the long period of DS being more sensitive to T 10 than in GS, and played a significant role in the annual forest ecosystems carbon budget. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Niu X.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Wang B.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Wei W.J.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2013

Long-term research network is a power tool for studying the structure and functions dynamics of forest ecosystems at regional, national and global scale. In particular, it is essential to construct such a nationwide network in terms of implementing scientific research and the result-based implication in policy making. Over the last two decades, a great progress has been achieved in the establishment of the Chinese Forest Ecosystem Research Network (CFERN), with some distinct features relative to other nation-scale networks in the world. Currently, as the largest forest ecosystem research network of a single ecosystem type, CFERN consists of more than 70 stations, covering 49 forest types across the country, which is a platform for observing and studying sustainable forestry. In the arrangement of CFERN stations, crucial geographical, climatic, biological and human factors, such as temperature, moisture, landscape topography, Chinese ecological function zoning, biodiversity hotspots and critical areas of forests, were integrated at the national level. Among CFERN stations, two national-level transects, the North-South Transect of Eastern China (NSTEC) (heat-based) and West-East Transect of Southern China (WETSC) (moisture-based), were set up, respectively. To efficiently run the CFERN, a series of general guidelines have been developed for station infrastructure construction, biological and environmental monitor, data management and application for local stations. Utilizing the data of CFERN, scientific research results have been achieved and some were used for national- and international-level policy making. All these information of CFERN was systematically introduced in this paper, with great help to scientists, managers, policy makers and the public, who are concerned with the characteristics and functions of China's forest ecosystems at the national and international scales, especially this network was regarded as a platform which plays a role in communicate with experts in other countries.


Yan T.W.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry | You W.Z.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry | Zhang H.D.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry | Wei W.J.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry | And 2 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2015

Evapotranspiration is one of the major components of forest water budgets, and therefore, must be estimated accurately. Accordingly, it is essential to thoroughly understand the relationships among evapotranspiration and the components of energy balance fluxes to enable development of forest hydrology and forest meteorology, which are the foundation of management and utilization of water resources. This study was conducted in a natural secondary forest in a mountainous area of Eastern Liaoning Province, China. Components of energy balance fluxes and characteristics of evapotranspiration were investigated at the Bingla Mountain Forest Ecological Station (42°35' N, 125°03' E) during 2012, by using the Bowen ratio-energy balance method (BERB). The monthly variation in net radiation (Rn) exhibited a single peak, with the maximum value (101.73 W/m2) occurring in May and the minimum value (-2.38 W/m2) in December. Additionally, during fine weather, the diurnal peak variation of Rn occurred at noon, indicating a distinctive positive trend from 0.5 h after sunrise to 1.5 h before sunset and a negative trend for the remaining time. Latent heat flux (LE) and sensible heat flux (H) exhibited the same diurnal single peak pattern. However, seasonal variations of LE and H showed different trends, with LE exhibiting a single peak in July and H showing double peaks, the highest in April and the second highest in September. The seasonal characteristics of the Bowen-ratio (β) values generated an approximate U-shaped pattern. The average value of β was 0.43 in the growing season (May to Sep), indicating that latent heat flux accounted for 70% of the effective energy. In contrast, the average value of β was 1.5, indicating that sensible heat flux accounted for 60% of the effective energy during the non-growing season. Soil heat flux (G) showed different diurnal variations in different periods. During the growing season, the diurnal variation of G showed an obvious single peak, and G accounted for 2.5% of the effective energy of energy expenditure. However, during the non-growing season, G showed no apparent diurnal variation and accounted for 6.8% of the effective energy as energy deposition. The annual total evapotranspiration was 541.8 mm in natural secondary forest in mountainous areas, accounting for a large proportion (70.3%) of the total annual precipitation (771 mm). The total evapotranspiration in the growing season was 398.3 mm, accounting for 61.8% of the annual precipitation (644.4 mm) in the same period. Taken together, these findings indicate that forest evapotranspiration was the most important expenditure for natural secondary forest in the Eastern Liaoning Mountainous Region. The evapotranspiration value assessed using the BERB method in this study was equivalent to those reported by similar studies, demonstrating that this method is reliable and accurate in natural secondary forest. The results of this study implied that evapotranspiration was not only influenced by precipitation but also by energy flux, roughness of the underlying surface, soil thermal properties, soil moisture, presence of plants and litter, and canopy density. Owing to its complexity and variability, the response mechanisms for energy balance and evapotranspiration in this region should be further investigated © 2015, Ecological Society of China. All Rights Reserved.


Wei W.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry | You W.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry | Zhang H.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry | Yan T.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry | Mao Y.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2016

Successive effects of freeze–thaw cycles (FTCs) on soil respiration rate (Rs) were explored in a Korean Larch (Larix olgensis Herry.) plantation during the winter to spring season. In March 2014, laboratory incubation with severe FTCs at the extreme minimum temperatures of −16°C and mild FTCs (−8°C) and field-based methods through five days continuous measurements of Rs at eight time points in one day were applied to determine the diurnal and seasonal Rs variations during FTCs, and to analyze the effects of FTCs regimes on Rs. The Rs increased rapidly as thawing proceeded, generating two peaks during severe FTCs, but with no obvious CO2 peaks in mild FTCs or field-based measurements. In severe FTCs, the Rs in first three FTCs changed dramatically, subsequently tended to stabilize. The diurnal Rs dynamics both followed unimodal type, with no fixed peak in laboratory study but the maximum value at 14:00 in field study. Laboratory- and field-based FTCs studies both highlighted the significant effects on soil carbon release. Initial response of soil respiratory bursts during early FTCs appeared to be driven by extreme minimum temperatures, while response of soil carbon release in late cycles was controlled by reduction in soil organic matter during early cycles. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Wei W.J.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry | You W.Z.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry | Zhao G.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry | Zhang H.D.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry | Yan T.W.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2016

Tussah-feeding oak forests (here after referred to as TF oak forests) are seriously degraded forests in the mountainous areas of Eastern Liaoning Province. Owing to repeated cutting every year, the trees grow slowly and their ability to regenerate is markedly decreased. When open spaces appear, the soil begins to become sandy, which causes a decline in ecosystem services such as water storage and soil conservation. In this study, the water holding capacity of the litter and surface soil were investigated in a degraded TF oak forest after 9, 12, and 21 years of enclosure to facilitate recovery. In addition, the degraded TF oak forest was studied to identify the effects of enclosure and recovery time on the water holding capacity of litter and surface soil, using the spatial sequence as opposed to the time succession sequence. Litter in degraded TF oak forests increased significantly after enclosure, with more litter accumulating with increased enclosure time. Litter accumulation after 9, 12, and 21 years of enclosure was 7.92, 8.41, and 8.74 t/hm2, respectively, which was 1.15, 1.28, and 1.37 times greater than those of the degraded TF oak forest, respectively. Longer enclosure times were associated with better litter water-holding capacity and improved rainfall retention. The maximum water holding capacity of TF oak forest after 9, 12, and 21 years of enclosure was 14.71, 15.81, and 17.18 t/hm2, respectively, which was 1.36-, 1.54-, and 1.76-fold higher than that of the degraded TF oak forest. The effective retention capacity of TF oak forest after 9, 12, and 21 years of enclosure was 10.87, 11.70, and 12.78 t/hm2, respectively, which was 1.29-, 1.46-, and 1.69-fold higher than that of the degraded TF oak forest, respectively. Litter water holding capacity and immersion time were significantly correlated (P < 0.001). The best fitting curve for this relationship took the form Hl = a + b ln t, and the coefficients of determination for all enclosures (R2) were greater than 0.9. The hydro-physical properties of surface soil of degraded TF oak forests improved following enclosure, with longer enclosure times associated with greater improvements in surface soil hydro- physical properties. Compared to the degraded TF oak forests, soil bulk density at 0—15 cm depth was reduced by 5.51%,12.60%, and 17.32% in the TF oak forests after 9, 12, and 21 years of enclosure, while total porosity increased by 12.21%, 41.85%, and 72.35%, respectively. Longer enclosure times were associated with increased soil water storage capacity. Compared to the degraded TF oak forests, water holding capacity in soil capillary pores increased by 7.01%, 28.98%, and 54.83%, while water holding capacity in soil non-capillary pores increased by 46.14%, 126.19%, and 187.19%, respectively in the TF oak forests after 9, 12, and 21 years of enclosure. Litter and surface soil water holding capacity were improved significantly after enclosure and recovery of degraded TF oak forests. Thus, enclosure played an important role the recovery and improvement of the local ecological environment, and increased forest productivity. © 2016, Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved.


Liu W.-W.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Liu W.-W.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Liu M.-C.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Li W.-H.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Mountain Science | Year: 2016

Currently, transforming the mode of forest management and developing multiple forest management practices are actively encouraged in China. As one forest management type, ginseng cultivation under larch plantations has been developed significantly in the east of Liaoning Province. However, research on the influence of the ecological environment for this mode of production is still deficient. Based on this, our study compares the plant diversity and soil properties in the ginseng cultivation under larch plantations (LG) with larch plantations (LP) and natural secondary forests (SF). First, we randomly selected three plots for each of the three stand types which have similar stand characteristics; then, we carried out a plant diversity survey and soil sampling in each of the nine plots. The results show that no significant difference was found in plant diversity between LG and LP, but the evenness of herbs was significantly lower in LG than LP. No obvious changes in soil physical properties were found in LG, but a significant decrease in most of the soil nutrient content was presented in LG. Furthermore, we found a correlation between plant diversity (H') and soil properties in the three kinds of stand types, especially between herbaceous plant diversity and soil properties. We conclude that ginseng cultivation under larch plantations has no obvious effect on plant diversity, except the herbaceous evenness. Soil fertility can be depleted significantly in LG, but physical structures are not affected. Moreover, maintaining the diversity of herbaceous plants and controlling the density of ginseng cultivation in LG by farmers are important for the ecological environment. Based on this study and its good comprehensive benefits and with the support of policy, we think this forest management type should be promoted moderately in the region. © 2016, Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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