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Xu C.-L.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Sun X.-M.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Zhang S.-G.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Dong J.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry
Forest Research | Year: 2011

In order to investigate maternal and paternal effects on photosynthetic characteristics of Larix kaempferi × L. olgensis hybrids, The light response curse and CO2 response curse were examined among three poly-crossed families and three full-sib families. Results demonstrated that significant differences existed in apparent quantum yield, dark respiration rate, carboxylation efficiency and very significant differences existed in light compensation point, CO2 compensation point among poly-crossed families, while very significant differences was detected only in dark respiration rate of three full-sib hybrid families. Maternal effect played a major role in determining photosynthetic characteristics of Larix kaempferi × L. olgensis hybrids. More attention should be paid to maternal effects when selecting high photosynthetic efficiency parents which are used for breeding for high photosynthetic efficiency.

Niu X.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Wang B.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Wei W.J.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2013

Long-term research network is a power tool for studying the structure and functions dynamics of forest ecosystems at regional, national and global scale. In particular, it is essential to construct such a nationwide network in terms of implementing scientific research and the result-based implication in policy making. Over the last two decades, a great progress has been achieved in the establishment of the Chinese Forest Ecosystem Research Network (CFERN), with some distinct features relative to other nation-scale networks in the world. Currently, as the largest forest ecosystem research network of a single ecosystem type, CFERN consists of more than 70 stations, covering 49 forest types across the country, which is a platform for observing and studying sustainable forestry. In the arrangement of CFERN stations, crucial geographical, climatic, biological and human factors, such as temperature, moisture, landscape topography, Chinese ecological function zoning, biodiversity hotspots and critical areas of forests, were integrated at the national level. Among CFERN stations, two national-level transects, the North-South Transect of Eastern China (NSTEC) (heat-based) and West-East Transect of Southern China (WETSC) (moisture-based), were set up, respectively. To efficiently run the CFERN, a series of general guidelines have been developed for station infrastructure construction, biological and environmental monitor, data management and application for local stations. Utilizing the data of CFERN, scientific research results have been achieved and some were used for national- and international-level policy making. All these information of CFERN was systematically introduced in this paper, with great help to scientists, managers, policy makers and the public, who are concerned with the characteristics and functions of China's forest ecosystems at the national and international scales, especially this network was regarded as a platform which plays a role in communicate with experts in other countries.

Niu X.,Beijing Forestry University | Niu X.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Wang B.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Liu S.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | And 3 more authors.
Ecological Complexity | Year: 2012

China is an important country in the world in terms of forestry and the function of its forest ecosystem. It is an essential issue to account the value of the forest ecosystem services (FESs) of China in both ecological economy and environmental policy making. However, a big challenge exists because of the variety in climate types, forest vegetation, and silvicultural measures. In the current study, the monetary value of some important China's FESs, such as water conservation, soil conservation, carbon sequestration and oxygen release, nutrient accumulation, atmosphere environment purification, and biodiversity conservation, was estimated to be about 10.01 trillion RMB/year (1.48 trillion US dollars/year) in 2008, wherein the largest fraction was water conservation (40.51%). A four-fold variation used to exist in the FESs per unit area by the provinces which are geographically used as assessing units. This value of FESs was about 33% of the gross domestic product (GDP) of China in 2008. The values of FESs are unevenly distributed across the country, decoupling from GDP among different provinces. The value of China's FESs will continue to have a fast increasing trend due to massive forestation in the future decades. Beyond that, it is clear that how much ecological benefits human obtained from forest, what kind of ecological benefits offered by forest, and which are predominant or potential FESs types in province under different natural and social conditions according to ecological location quotient (ELQ). Compared with the Engel's coefficient (EC) of individual and the willingness to pay index (WTP) of governmental to FESs, we can conclude that insofar as we have a thorough understanding of the value and functions of FESs, and bring the government WTP and individual EC into full play, and promote the high environmental protection consciousness, it will have large potential WTP for improving the environment quality based on the low level WTP of the government in reality. Moreover, these results show important implications in making a policy for ecological complementary on the national scale in China and in assessing FESs in other countries, and will be useful to scientists, managers, policy makers and people who are concerned with relationship between human and natural systems. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Wang B.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Wei W.J.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry | Liu C.J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | You W.Z.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Tropical Forest Science | Year: 2013

Bamboo forests are special forest resources in China with wide distribution, and important economic and ecological values. Of 500 bamboo species native to China, moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is the most important in the terms of distribution, timber and other economic values. In this study, we examined the variations in biomass carbon stock of moso bamboo forests across subtropical China using national forest resources inventory data (1977-2008), along with stand biomass data compiled from literature. Our results showed that the biomass carbon of moso bamboo forests ranged from 219.56 to 299.31 Tg ha-1, accounting for 4.7-5.9% of the total forest biomass carbon in China from 1977 till 2008. At stand level, mean biomass carbon was 70-85 Mg ha-1 in the northern and middle subtropical subregions, and 35-45 Mg ha-1 in the sout-west mountain and southern subtropical subregions. With high biomass carbon sequestration, along with the quick and low-cost regeneration, high growth rate, short rotation, high phytolith-occluded carbon content and high economic and ecological values, moso bamboo forest can play an important role in carbon sink forestry in subtropical regions of China. © Forest Research Institute Malaysia.

You W.Z.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry | Zhao G.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry | Zhang H.D.,Liaoning Academy of Forestry | Guo Y.T.,Liaoning Baishilazi National Nature Reserve Administration | And 3 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2015

Forest management strategies for natural secondary forests require appropriate thinning methods that are stable, efficient, and sustainable. In the present study, we investigated the influence of thinning intensity on tree growth and forest structure. We established three different thinning regimes (light, medium, and heavy) and a no-thinning (control) treatment in young (15 years old) and middle-aged (35 years old) Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) secondary forests in Liaoning Baishilazi National Nature Reserve. Data were collected 8 years and 26 years after thinning. In the young forest, we found that light, medium, and heavy thinning significantly influenced the average diameter at breast height (DBH) of the stand and its periodical increment. After 8 years, the average stand DBHs in the light, medium, and heavy thinning plots were 2.1 cm, 1.3 cm, and 2 cm larger, respectively, than that in control plot. On the contrary, thinning intensity had no significant influence on stand volume growth. After 8 years, the total increments of stand volume in trees showing an increase in DBH of >12 cm after the light, medium, and heavy thinning treatments were 0.97, 1.03, and 1.21 times higher, respectively, than those of control trees. The control stand and stands subjected to each thinning treatment exhibited a left single-peak mountain shape, implying that most trees were classified in the small DBH class. In the middle-aged forest, we found that thinning significantly influenced not only the average stand DBH but also the stand volume growth and its total increment. An increase in the thinning intensity resulted in a greater increase in the average stand DBH. In addition, heavy thinning significantly influenced the periodical increment of the average stand DBH. After 26 years, the average stand DBHs in the light, medium, and heavy thinning plots were 0.3 cm, 1.7 cm, and 5.1 cm greater, respectively, than that of control plot. After 26 years, the total increments of stand volume in trees showing an increase in DBH of >12 cm after the light, medium, and heavy thinning treatments were 1.97, 1.65, and 1.63 times higher, respectively, than that of control trees. Stands subjected to the light and heavy thinning treatments exhibited a right single-peak mountain shape, implying that most trees were classified in the large DBH class and therefore the forest structure was considered to be optimal. On the contrary, the control stand and the stand subjected to the medium thinning treatment exhibited a left single-peak mountain shape, implying that most trees were classified in the small DBH class. The results of our comprehensive analysis of the impacts of age class and thinning intensity on forest growth suggest that the most effective forest management strategy for Mongolian oak secondary forests is to conduct light, medium, and heavy thinning in young forests, but only heavy thinning in middle-aged forests. However, to achieve an increase in total volume growth, the stand density should be ≥1600 trees per hectare. © 2015, Ecological Society of China. All Rights Reserved.

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