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Li L.,Liaoning Academy of Agricultural science | Redden R.J.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Zong X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Berger J.D.,CSIRO | Bennett S.J.,Curtin University Australia
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2013

Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is grown widely throughout China and has undergone natural selection throughout its agricultural range over 2,000 years. Here we characterize collection site habitats to develop an understanding of the key selection pressures likely to be imposed by each environment to facilitate the investigation of specific adaptation. We characterized 240 collection sites of 529 pea landraces, across 25 provinces and 3 municipalities of China comprising the main pea cropping regions for climatic variables. Multivariate analyses showed that collection sites tended to cluster along geographic and abiotic stress clines. Spring sown sites and winter sown sites were clearly separated into 6 and 7 habitat type clusters respectively. In addition, regions which experience extreme abiotic stresses of frost, drought and high temperature in the reproductive period for pea landraces, were identified as targets for germplasm to be tested for respective tolerances to these stresses. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Liu Z.,North Dakota State University | Wang D.,Liaoning Academy of Agricultural science | Feng J.,North Dakota State University | Seiler G.J.,North Dakota State University | And 2 more authors.
Genetics | Year: 2013

The combination of a single cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) PET-1 and the corresponding fertility restoration (Rf) gene Rf1 is used for commercial hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n = 34) seed production worldwide. A new CMS line 514A was recently developed with H. tuberosus cytoplasm. However, 33 maintainers and restorers for CMS PET-1 and 20 additional tester lines failed to restore the fertility of CMS 514A. Here, we report the discovery, characterization, and molecular mapping of a novel Rf gene for CMS 514A derived from an amphiploid (Amp H. angustifolius/P 21, 2n = 68). Progeny analysis of the male-fertile (MF) plants (2n = 35) suggested that this gene, designated Rf6, was located on a single alien chromosome. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) indicated that Rf6 was on a chromosome with a small segment translocation on the long arm in the MF progenies (2n = 34). Rf6 was mapped to linkage group (LG) 3 of the sunflower SSR map. Eight markers were identified to be linked to this gene, covering a distance of 10.8 cM. Two markers, ORS13 and ORS1114, were only 1.6 cMaway from the gene. Severe segregation distortions were observed for both the fertility trait and the linked marker loci, suggesting the possibility of a low frequency of recombination or gamete selection in this region. This study discovered a new CMS/Rf gene system derived from wild species and provided significant insight into the genetic basis of this system. This will diversify the germplasm for sunflower breeding and facilitate understanding of the interaction between the cytoplasm and nuclear genes. © 2013 by the Genetics Society of America.

Zhang G.H.,Liaoning Academy of Agricultural science
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2012

The AlHAK1 gene encoding a high-affinity K+ transporter was isolated from Aeluropus littoralis (Gouan) Parl, a graminaceous halophyte, and plays a crucial role in nutrition and ion homeostasis in plant cell. To investigate the regulation role of AlHAK1 on the transcriptional level, an about 1.3 kb 5'-flanking region of the AlHAK1 gene containing a putative promoter was cloned by genome walking method. Cis-regulatory elements analysis showed AlHAK1-promoter region contained typical TATA and CAAT boxes, and some growth and development relative motifs, as well as environmental re-sponsive elements. To reveal the function and regulating role, the AlHAK1 promoter was fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in the pCAMBIA1301 vector and introduced into rice via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Histo-chemical staining indicated that the GUS expression directed by AlHAK1 promoter was observed in leaves, stems, roots, anther, lemma, and palea. GUS quantitative fluorometric analysis indicated that GUS activity directed by AlHAK1 promoter was lower than CaMV35S and Ubiquitin constitutive promoters; however, in the roots and stems the GUS activity was rela-tively high and displayed a tissue-specific expression pattern. Under ABA, high temperature or drought stress, the GUS activity directed by AlHAK1 promoter was inducible in the roots and stems, suggesting the elements of HSE (-682 bp) and MybBS (-1 268 bp) might play a role in the inducible regulation.

Ni J.,Hangzhou Normal University | Ni J.,Zhejiang University | Zhu Z.,Zhejiang University | Zhu Z.,Liaoning Academy of Agricultural science | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) and Auxin Response Factor (ARF) are two important families that play key roles in auxin signal transduction. Both of the families contain a similar carboxyl-terminal domain (Domain III/IV) that facilitates interactions between these two families. In spite of the importance of protein-protein interactions among these transcription factors, the mechanisms involved in these interactions are largely unknown. In this study, we isolated six intragenic suppressors of an auxin insensitive mutant, Osiaa23. Among these suppressors, Osiaa23-R5 successfully rescued all the defects of the mutant. Sequence analysis revealed that an amino acid substitution occurred in the Tryptophan (W) residue in Domain IV of Osiaa23. Yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that the mutation in Domain IV prevents the protein-protein interactions between Osiaa23 and OsARFs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the W residue is conserved in both OsIAAs and OsARFs. Next, we performed site-specific amino acid substitutions within Domain IV of OsARFs, and the conserved W in Domain IV was exchanged by Serine (S). The mutated OsARF(WS)s can be released from the inhibition of Osiaa23 and maintain the transcriptional activities. Expression of OsARF(WS)s in Osiaa23 mutant rescued different defects of the mutant. Our results suggest a previously unknown importance of Domain IV in both families and provide an indirect way to investigate functions of OsARFs. Copyright: © 2014 Ni et al.

Wang X.Y.,Liaoning Academy of Agricultural science | Zhou L.H.,Liaoning Academy of Agricultural science
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2016

The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important and cosmopolitan pest that attacks cultivated crops, including maize, cotton, soybeans, beet, tomato, cabbage, and alfalfa, causing serious economic losses in some of the main crop-producing areas. This species originated in South Asia and is distributed throughout the tropical and temperate regions of Asia, Europe, Africa, and North America. In China, S. exigua was first recorded in Beijing in the 1890s and has been widely distributed in the southern provinces in recent years. However, recently, with global climate warming and the adjustment of agricultural planting structures, S. exigua has quickly spread to the main crop-producing areas of North China. Genetic diversity and population genetic structure are important aspects of the population genetics of agricultural insects, and provide essential information for understanding local adaptation and dispersal patterns, and for clarifying the relationships between genetic variation and outbreaks of pest species. Cytochrome b (Cytb) has a moderate evolutionary rate and a clear evolutionary pattern, suitable for the studies of phylogenetic evolution at the intra- and inter-specific levels. To identify the genetic diversity and population history among geographic populations of S. exigua in North China, and clarify its population demographic history and genetic structure, the genetic diversity, structure, differentiation, and molecular variance were analyzed using DnaSP 5.0 and Arlequin 3.0. In the present study, 798 bases of mtDNA Cytb genes were obtained from 304 individuals of S. exigua, collected from 17 geographic populations in 8 provinces of North China in 2012. Of the 798 characters, 776 sites were conserved and 22 sites were variable (2.8% of the total length), including 9 parsimonious informative sites. The average base frequencies were 42.7% A, 33.1% T, 12.6% G, and 11.5% C. Within-locality diversity was estimated in terms of haplotype diversity (h) and nucleotide diversity (π) from all surveyed localities. Low genetic diversity (Hd = 0.422 ± 0.035,π = 0.00119 ± 0.00011) in the total populations among different geographic populations was detected. The highest estimate (Hd = 0.643 ± 0.106, π = 0.00214 ± 0.00039) was detected in Binzhou (BZ). Nineteen haplotypes, including 9-shared haplotypes were identified. Hap6 was shared in 228 individuals of all populations. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted to determine the relationships between S. exigua haplotypes, and detect discernible groups related to geographic distribution. High congruence was observed between the phylogenies derived from Maximum parsimony (MP), Maximum-likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analyses, and these analyses generated only two inclusive clades. Moreover, the median-joining network was similar to the topology of the phylogenetic tree with 19 haplotypes, and revealed no obvious phylogeographic pattern. The pairwise FST values between the populations varied from -0.049-0.666. Generally, little genetic differentiation (FST = 0.108, P < 0.001) among different geographic populations was detected, with the only significant differentiation between the Lucheng (LUC) and other S. exigua populations. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that the percentage of variation within a population (89.18%) was greater than that between the populations (10.82%). The results of neutrality tests on the S. exigua data set of the total population are: Tajima's D (D = -1.897, P < 0.05) and Fu's Fs (Fs = -4.424, P < 0.05), combined with the unimodal mismatch distribution, indicated recent population expansion of S. exigua in large spatial scales. © 2016, Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved.

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