Liangshui National Nature Reserve

Yichun, China

Liangshui National Nature Reserve

Yichun, China
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Wang L.-X.,Northeast Forestry University | Duan W.-B.,Northeast Forestry University | Chen L.-X.,Northeast Forestry University | Du S.,Northeast Forestry University | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2013

In August-October 2011, the soil water content (SWC) at different depths in different sized gaps in Pinus koraiensis-dominated broad-leaved mixed forest of Xiaoxing'an Mountains, Northeast China was continuously measured by grid nesting method and time domain reflectometry (TDR), and the spatial heterogeneity of the SWC was analyzed by the principles and approaches of geostatistics. The SWC was most abundant in medium gap, followed by in large gap and in small gap whereas the maximum difference of SWC was the biggest in large gap, followed by in medium gap, and in small gap. The variation range of the nugget of SWC at different depths in the large, medium, and small gaps was 0.001-0.404, 0.001-0.273, and 0.001-0.261, respectively. The SWC heterogeneity resulted from random part and the total system SWC spatial heterogeneity were decreased in the order of large gap > medium gap > small gap. The spatial distribution pattern of SWC was most complicated in medium gap, while the spatial dependence in the variation of the SWC pattern was the strongest in large gap. High-grade patches (SWC was 50%-60%) occupied the largest area in medium gap, followed by in large gap, and there was no high-grade patch in small gap. As for the SWC at same depths and in same months, its grade distribution was most simple in small gap, but relatively complicated in large and medium gaps. The maximum value of SWC increased with increasing gap size.


Du S.,Northeast Forestry University | Duan W.-B.,Northeast Forestry University | Wang L.-X.,Northeast Forestry University | Chen L.-X.,Northeast Forestry University | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2013

An investigation was conducted in a 2.55 hm2 plot of Pinus koraiensis-dominated broadleaved mixed forest to study the microsite characteristics of pit and mound formed by 42 treefalls and the status of vegetation regeneration on the microsites. The soil water content, soil temperature, relative air humidity, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on five microsites (mound top, mound face, pit wall, pit bottom, and intact forest floor) were measured. Among the five mirosites, mound top had the highest PAR (527.9 μmol · m-2 · s-1) while intact forest floor had the lowest one (58.7 μmol · m-2 · s-1), mound top had the highest soil temperature (16.0°C) but pit bottom had the lowest one (13.3°C), pit bottom had the highest soil water content (34.6%) but mound face had the lowest one (0.5%), and intact forest floor had the highest relative air humidity (75.9%) but mound top had the lowest one (68. 0%). The frequency of forming pit/mound complex by the tree species was decreased in the order of Pinus koraiensis (42.9%) > Picea asperata (31.0%) > Betula platyphylla (16.7%) > Abies fabri (7.1%) > Prunus padus (2.4%). Among the 42 treefalls, two-thirds of them were in northwest direction. The treefalls volume had significant positive correlations with pit depth, pit length, mound height, and mound width, but negative correlation with mound thickness. The treefall mean diameter at breast height had significant positive correlations with pit width (r =0.328, P =0.017) and pit length (r=0.527, P=0). The tree species richness at the microsites decreased in the order of intact forest floor > pit > mound, and the tree species coverage was in the sequence of intact forest floor > pit > mound.


Wei Q.-S.,Northeast Forestry University | Wang J.-H.,China Rural Technology Development Center | Duan W.-B.,Northeast Forestry University | Chen L.-X.,Northeast Forestry University | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2014

An investigation was conducted in a 2.25 hm2 plot of Pinus koraiensis-dominated broadleaved mixed forest to study basic characteristics of 7 small gaps, 5 middle gaps, 3 large gaps and 7 closed stands within 38 pit and mound complexes caused by treefall in May 2012. From June to September 2012, the soil temperature, soil water content and relative humidity at five microsites (pit bottom, pit wall, mound top, mound face and undisturbed closed stands) were measured in six sunny days each month. The results showed that among the five microsites in every month, the mound top had the highest soil temperature and the lowest water content and relative humidity, and vice versa for the pit bottom. Mostly, the differences in the above indicators among the five microsites were significant. From June to September, the mean soil temperatures for all microsites at pit and mound complex in the various gaps and closed stands were in the order of large gap>middle gap >small gap>closed stand; but the soil water content ranked differently every month. In June, August and September, the mean relative humidities for all microsites in the various gaps and closed stands were in the order of closed stand>small gap>middle gap>large gap. Mostly, the differences in the above indicators between all microsites in the various gaps and closed stand were significant. The mean monthly soil temperature and relative humidity were highest in July, but lowest in September. The maximal mean monthly soil water content occurred in July and the minimal one in September for each microsite except the undisturbed closed stands, where the maximal mean monthly soil water content occurred in July. The variation of the microclimate at the pit and mound complex was mainly influenced by gap size, microsite, and time.


Duan W.-B.,Northeast Forestry University | Wei Q.-S.,Northeast Forestry University | Qiao L.,Northeast Forestry University | Qiao L.,Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | And 5 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2014

Characteristics of pit and mound complexes in different sizes of forest gaps and closed stands and their distribution patterns were compared and analyzed. The results showed that mean mound width, mound height, mound thickness of all pit and mound complexes were larger than corresponding mean pit length, pit width, pit depth in large, medium and small gaps as well as in closed stands. Mound width, mound height, mound thickness, pit length, pit width, pit depth were the largest in large gap, being 2.85, 0.37, 2.00, 2.99, 2.10, 0.39 m, respectively, and the smallest in closed stands, being 2.35, 0.19, 1.60, 2.66, 1.65, 0.21, respectively. Mean mound volume (1.66 m3) was larger than mean pit volume (1.44 m3). The difference in characteristic values between the most of pit and mound complexes was significant for the same size of forest gap, not significant for closed stands, significant for different sizes of forest gaps and closed stands. Most of characteristic values for pit and mound complexes within the plot in 2012 were significantly less than those in 2011.89.5% and 60.5% of type and shape of pit and mound complexes were hinge and semiellipse, respectively. Their distribution was relatively centralized. ©, 2014, Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology. All right reserved.


Wang Y.-T.,Northeast Forestry University | Xu H.-D.,Northeast Forestry University | Wang L.-H.,Northeast Forestry University | Li F.-R.,Northeast Forestry University | Sun H.,Liangshui National Nature Reserve
Beijing Linye Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Beijing Forestry University | Year: 2015

To study the decay status of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) standing trees in natural forests, we selected and tested twenty six 20 m × 20 m quadrats with different site conditions at fixed sample plots with a total area of 30 ha, located at Liangshui National Nature Reserve, Lesser Xing'an Mountains. Six external decay indicators for a total of 129 Korean pine standing trees within quadrats were visually observed and recorded, namely swollen knots, swollen bole, canker, rotten branches, hollow and sporophore. The frequency, location and size of each indicator were statistically analyzed and used to estimate the decay rate of sample trees in the quadrats. Based on this, the relationships between decay rate and slope, slope aspect, slope position and elevation were analyzed. Then the relationship between decay rate and diameter at breast height (DBH) was emphatically discussed. The results showed that the external decay indicators of standing trees could be used to determine the decay status of forest trees, which also provide a potential method to rapidly estimate the decay degree of standing trees. Tree decay rate was influenced by environmental site factors. It correlated with slope negatively at a significance level P < 0.05 and had a very significant correlation with slope aspect (P < 0.01). However, it was not significantly correlated with both slope position and elevation (P > 0.05). According to the regression analysis, the decay rate of sample trees presented a highly significantly positive linear correlation with DBH (P < 0.01), which increased as DBH increased. When the DBH was larger than 60 cm (the estimated tree age was 230 years), the decay rate was as high as 70%. ©, YYYY, Beijing Forestry University. All right reserved.

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