Liander is a Dutch utility company which operates in the distribution of electricity and natural gas in part of the Netherlands. Liander NV is the largest utility company in the Netherlands, managing the energy network in the provinces of Gelderland and Noord-Holland entirely, and in large parts of Flevoland, Friesland and Zuid-Holland.Liander NV was formerly known as Continuon, and is now a division of the umbrella-company Alliander. Alliander includes also Liandon , focused on building and maintenance of large energy infrastructures, and Lyandin that operates in lighting of public spaces.Liander was split from the Nuon group in July 2008 and since 12 November 2008 it has operated under the new name Liander. Nuon continues to operate as a production and supply company, under the name Nuon Energy. Wikipedia.
News Article | May 19, 2017
Smart meters can provide electricity readings up to six times higher than actual levels, according to a new study. These meters have passed standards tests. However these tests have failed to identify faults because the meters contain components not designed to measure some of the latest devices in use, and the standards have not yet caught up with this. It’s often been a mantra of energy efficiency that “what gets measured gets saved”. But what if the meters used for measuring energy give faulty readings? Two recent market studies have found that such meters are relatively common. One study by scientists at the Dutch University of Twente found that smart meters can provide electricity readings that are up to six times higher than actual levels. This unreliability is especially prevalent when monitoring the outputs of LED lighting when they are combined with dimmers. Tests found that 60 per cent of the meters tested frequently gave results as much as 582 per cent (almost six times) the actual energy use, while some of the meters under-recorded consumption by up to 30 per cent. Many types of LEDs have not been designed to be used with dimmers, but even those that did generated false readings in some meters. The electricity being consumed has an erratic waveform and many of the meters tested were unable to process this, which caused the inaccurate results. “Okay, these were laboratory tests, but we deliberately avoided using exceptional conditions,” University of Twente PhD student Cees Keyer said. “For example, a dimmer and 50 bulbs, while an average household has 47 bulbs.” The researchers dismantled the energy meters tested and discovered the ones giving excessively high readings contained a Rogowski coil current sensor. The meters giving a lower than actual deviation were fitted with a Hall effect-based current sensor. Frank Leferink, professor of electromagnetic compatibility at the University of Twente, said: “The energy meters we tested meet all the legal requirements and are certified. These requirements, however, have not made sufficient allowance for modern switching devices”. The standardised test for meters does not make allowance for waveform-contaminating power-consuming appliances. As a result, according to the researchers, it is an unsuitable method for testing meters. Professor Leferink and Mr Keyer advise any consumers who doubt their meter readings to contact their supplier. In Holland, 750,000 of these meters have been fitted. The network company responsible, Liander, commented that the problem centres on meters installed between 2012 and 2014, with large companies most likely to be affected. However, households with solar panels and electric cars are also likely to have been hit. The Dutch consumers association said that Liander “should be actively looking for the faulty meters and looking at eventual compensation”. Millions of similar meters may be installed around the world. The only way for their owners to know if they contain the misleading current sensors would be to consult the manufacturer. They would then have to replace the meters at their own cost under present circumstances – an unacceptable case of testing standards failing the marketplace. The study, Static Energy Meter Errors Caused by Conducted Electromagnetic Interference, was published in the scientific journal IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Magazine. At the other end of the market, in industry, meters can also be inaccurate due to the temptation to cut costs by purchasing a cheap metering solution. Martin Wardell, managing director of data-logging software and meter company MWA Technology, says problems arise due to the use of low-quality products for metering hot water. Wardell claims that the use of sub-par meters, whose life expectancy is extremely low, is “an indictment of the lack of care taken by consulting engineers” who fail to recommend or install heat meters using ultrasonic flow sensors. This type of meter will operate accurately for up to 20 years. Leading manufacturers of energy meters, including Kamstrup, Diehl/Hydrometer and Itron, do not use mechanical flow parts/meters, instead opting for ultrasonic flow parts. “What we are seeing more during our site visits is the combination of mechanical parts meters integrated alongside ultrasonic meters, resulting in the performance breakdown of the mechanical counterpart and the inevitable leaking,” he said. “Picking the right meter from the start saves money and complications.” He puts the blame on estimators in building services and system integrators. “They have been weaned on this low-cost solution and have the approach that as long as they perform for 12 months, they can wash their hands of any future issue. “While many consulting engineers have realised that heat meters must be MIS Class II certified, when it comes to specifying water meters they specify WRAS approved and MID certified but they fail to specify the accuracy class. This should be R400 minimum, which are UK water utility grade meters.” Standards for all energy meters can be found on this European Union website. David Thorpe is the author of a number of books on energy efficiency, sustainable building and renewable energy, including The Expert Guide To Energy Management In Buildings and The Expert Guide To Energy Management In Industry. Find out more and buy the books here.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2013.7.1.1 | Award Amount: 4.33M | Year: 2013
The significant rise in distributed renewable energy sources has placed an enormous burden on the secure operation of the electrical grid, impacting both the transmission system operators (TSOs) and distribution system operators (DSOs). The massive increase of the intermittent DRES in low (LV) and medium (MV) networks has led to a bidirectional power flow which raises the urgent need for new operational and control strategies in order to maintain the ability of the system to provide the consumers with reliable supply of electricity at an acceptable power quality level. Technically, INCREASE will focus on how to manage renewable energy sources in LV and MV networks, to provide ancillary services (towards DSO, but also TSOs), in particular voltage control and the provision of reserve. INCREASE will investigate the regulatory framework, grid code structure and ancillary market mechanisms, and propose adjustments to facilitate successful provisioning of ancillary services that are necessary for the operation of the electricity grid, including flexible market products. INCREASE will enable DRES and loads to go beyond just exchanging power with the grid which will enable the DSO to evolve from a congestion manager to capacity manager. This will result in a more efficient exploitation of the current grid capacity, thus facilitating higher DRES penetration at reduced cost. Because of the more efficient use of the existing infrastructure, grid tariffs could decrease, potentially resulting in a lower cost for the consumers. The INCREASE simulation platform will enable the validation of the proposed solutions and provides the DSOs with a tool they can use to investigate the influence of DRES on their distribution network. The INCREASE solutions will also be validated (i) by lab tests, as well as (ii) in three field trials in the real-life operational distribution network of Stromnetz Steiermark in Austria, of Elektro Gorenjska in Slovenia and of Liander in the Netherlands.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SEC-2013.2.2-3 | Award Amount: 4.54M | Year: 2014
SEGRIDs main objective is to enhance the protection of smart grids against cyber-attacks. We do this by applying a risk management analysis approach to a number of smart grid use cases (the SEGRID use cases), which will define security requirements and determine gaps in current security technologies, standards and regulations. The identified gaps and the analysis itself will give input to the enhancement of risk assessment methodologies and the development of novel security measures for smart grids. We are convinced that SEGRID will deliver a major contribution to the protection of smart grids of 2020 against cyber-attacks by: Identifying threats and potential future cyber-attack pathways, for the SEGRID use cases; Determining the gap between currently available security standards, methods and measures for smart grids in order to derive which additional security methods and measures are required for the SEGRID use cases; Developing the necessary new security methods and measures for privacy, communication and system security in smart grids, to mitigate the threats found in the SEGRID use cases, evaluate and test them; Building up a realistic test environment (Security Integration Test Environment, SITE) to test and verify new security methods and measures; Evaluating and improving current risk management methodologies in order to make them optimally suited to identify and address the key risk factors of smart grids of 2020; Feeding the established results from the SEGRID project into European and global standardisation bodies, industry groups and smart grid suppliers and make sure that the project results fit the needs of those communities and raise awareness among stakeholders.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: FI.ICT-2011.1.8 | Award Amount: 9.13M | Year: 2011
The energy sector has entered a period of major change which will continue for many years to come. The increasing proportion of electricity from renewable sources means that the architecture of the energy grid will have to support the distributed, in addition to the centralised, generation of energy and to adapt to a highly volatile supply e.g. from wind and solar generators. From the consumption perspective, electric vehicles will demand new load management patterns in the grids. At the same time, private and commercial consumers are being encouraged to reduce their energy use and electronics manufacturers are striving to reduce the energy use of their products. The energy supply will need to evolve into a dynamic system to provide the smart energy infrastructure needed to support society in 2020 and beyond.\n\nFuture Internet technologies will play a critical role in the development of Smart Energy infrastructures, enabling new functionality while reducing costs. In the FINSENY project, key actors from the ICT and energy sectors will team-up to identify the ICT requirements of Smart Energy Systems. This will lead to the definition of new solutions and standards, verified in a large scale pan-European Smart Energy trial. Project results will contribute to the emergence of a sustainable Smart Energy infrastructure, based on new products and services, to the benefit of all European citizens and the environment.\n\nAs part of the FI-PPP programme, FINSENY will intensively analyse energy-specific requirements together with the other FI-PPP projects, develop solutions to address these requirements, and prepare for a Smart Energy trial in phase two of the programme. The growing FINSENY Smart Grid Stakeholder Group will provide broad visibility of the on-going project work in the energy community, enhancing the acceptability of the project results and facilitating the development of the smart energy market.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.6.4 | Award Amount: 5.18M | Year: 2013
Energy efficiency becomes crucial for rational consumption of the available resources and reduction of the CO2 production. But the reduction of energy consumption as the only remedy is only a partial solution. Similar, applying more environment-neutral or renewable energy sources without smart management systems may even cause failures in the energy grid or at least cause the energy to be wasted. Introducing intelligent solutions that combine the control of energy production and consumption helps to achieve the best efficiency.However a successful application of such solutions faces problems due to human factors. The problem space is multidimensional, but can be abstracted as a combination of social, economic and technical aspects. The e-balance project will investigate their interdependencies and propose a solution that satisfies the defined requirements.The social, economic and technical aspects will be investigated in order to achieve a mature and holistic solution.The social aspects include:- Socio-technical development (user requirements and concerns),- Different levels of user participation (involvement) and means to increase it,- Barriers to conduct an effective solution,From the economic perspective the following aspects will be considered:- Development of new business opportunities,- Economic means to increase involvement,- Legislation reinforcements and corrective measures,And the technical solution will provide the following features respecting the socio-economic aspects:- Support for all kinds of energy source and storage,- Scalable, fine grained and decentralized energy balancing and demand prediction,- Security and privacy mechanisms,- Flexible accounting,- Increased reliability.The technical solution will be based on available state of the art results and will combine them according to the socio-economical requirements with necessary adaptation.The proposed energy management platform will be evaluated in realistic scenarios using real world set-ups in Alliander microgrid in Bronsbergen and EDP Smart Grid in Portugal, as well as in emulation.In order to stimulate the exploitation of the results we will provide a guide book and tools for parties interested in using our solution, to help them to estimate the improvements they can achieve for a given deployment as well as the costs they can expect.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SoU | Phase: EeB.ENERGY.2011.8.1-1 | Award Amount: 8.46M | Year: 2012
This project is about the demonstration of very low energy buildings. In all demonstrations, the ambition is net zero carbon/energy or better (active or plus-energy house). The project paves the way for large scale implementation of energy neutral buildings/neighbourhoods as foreseen in the Energy Performance of Buildings directive and the pilots are running more than five years ahead of the goal of the EU, to have energy-neutral new build dwellings by the start of 2019. Common approach is: 1- Reduce demand, 2-Sustainable heat, 3- Local renewables for residual demand. In Amsterdam, an old harbour area close to the city center will be developed as a climate neutral, water-rich neighbourhood. SPLA Lyon-Confluence consider setting very ambitious energy targets for their P-Plot building : this building should have a balanced energy consumption calculated in primary energy. The Grnkullan & Hlan area will be registered and evaluated on multiple parameters within 10 eco topics before, during design and in the evaluation. The houses will be built as passive houses and supplemented with renewable energy supply making the houses ACTIVE. The three pilots have a total gross floor area of about 50000 m2. All set the standard for future developments. Within all demonstrations there is a strong emphasis on demonstration of competitive techniques like waste water heat recovery. Demonstrations of ICT-based inhabitant energy feedback systems are included. Existing systems are improved and new ones are developed. A system for neighbourhood load control will be developed and demonstrated. The project includes innovative building element development. Topics are building-integrated PV-panels, important for all the demonstration sites, and transmission controllable windows that have significant potential to reduce the building energy demand. Monitoring, an extensive dissemination program and a special effort on mutual learning and experience exchange are paer of the project.
Janssen A.,Liander |
Makareinis D.,Siemens AG |
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery | Year: 2014
Since the 1970s, CIGRE has conducted three worldwide surveys on high-voltage circuit-breaker (CB) reliability. The results of the last inquiry, published last year, are presented and compared with those of the former inquiries. With a focus on the CB's fundamental functions for the system, figures show the growth in reliability during the past decades. The reliability is expressed in failure per 100 CB years (CBY) or per 10\thinspace000 operating cycles for the relevant failure modes. The overall major failure rate improved largely from the first (1.58 per 100 CBY) to the second (0.67 per 100 CBY) to the third enquiry (0.30 per 100 CBY). The failure rate increases with higher voltage classes; GIS CBs have been shown to be twice as reliable and live tank CBs twice as bad as the average failure rate. Although improved, the mechanical operating mechanism is still the subassembly responsible for most failures; besides, CBs applied for frequent switching purposes show a higher failure rate than average. © 1986-2012 IEEE.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SEC-2011.2.5-1 | Award Amount: 5.28M | Year: 2012
The CRISALIS project aims at providing new means to secure critical infrastructure environments from targeted attacks, carried out by resourceful and motivated individuals. The recent discovery of a malware called Stuxnet, show that these threats are already a reality. Their success in infiltrating Critical Infrastructure environments is calling attention on the ineffectiveness of standard security mechanisms at detecting them. Stuxnet is believed to have been operating undetected for almost one year leveraging multiple vulnerabilities that were previously unknown, and has been discovered only as a consequence to an operational anomaly that triggered the attention of the field operators. This fact clearly shows that our methods to find vulnerabilities and detect ongoing or successful attacks in critical infrastructure environments are not sufficient. CRISALIS focuses on these two aspects: detection of vulnerabilities and attacks in critical infrastructure environments. We focus on two different, yet interlinked, use cases that are typical for the power grid infrastructure: control systems based on SCADA protocols and the Advanced Metering Infrastructure. CRISALIS leverages the unique characteristics of critical infrastructure environments to produce novel practical mechanisms and techniques for their security assessment and protection. This is achieved by pursuing three main research objectives: (i) providing new methodologies and techniques to secure critical infrastructure systems; (ii) providing new tools to detect intrusions; (iii) developing new, more effective, techniques to analyze infected systems. Particular attention is paid to ensure the practical implementation of these techniques in real-world environments, and to minimize the impact on operations, goals which are attainable thanks to the direct involvement in the process of end users and device manufacturers who provide expertise and realistic test environments to validate the proposed methodologies.