Stanworth D.,LGC Forensics |
Hunt N.C.A.,Forensic Pathology Services |
Flanagan R.J.,Kings College
Forensic Science International | Year: 2012
Clozapine is a uniquely effective antipsychotic, but is very toxic in clozapine-naïve subjects. A 34-year-old male patient in a mental health facility, who was not prescribed clozapine, took 350. mg clozapine obtained from another patient at night. He was found dead the next morning. The presence of cardiomegaly related to obesity may have increased the risk of suffering an acute cardiac event after ingestion of clozapine. The medication prescribed to the patient was not thought to have contributed to the fatal outcome. Post mortem femoral blood clozapine and norclozapine concentrations were 0.48 and 0.20. mg/L, respectively. By way of comparison, audit of 104,127 plasma samples (26,796 patients) assayed for therapeutic drug monitoring purposes 1993-2007, showed plasma clozapine 0.35. mg/L or more in 57.5% samples (8.4% 1. mg/L or more). Those involved in the investigation of clozapine-associated deaths need to be aware that that death in an adult may occur after a single 'therapeutic' dose. A diagnosis of fatal clozapine poisoning cannot be made solely on the basis of a post mortem blood clozapine measurement. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Puch-Solis R.,LGC Forensics
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2014
The technology for producing DNA profiles is very sensitive and is able to produce profiles from process negative controls typically consisting of one or two peaks, a phenomenon known as dropin. There are several types of models that implement likelihood ratios for the statistical evaluation of DNA profiles. One of the types is the family of continuous models because they consider continuous peak height/area measurements from the stain profile. Nowadays, there are several continuous models available. The aim of this article is to expose a statistical model for dropin peak heights supported by data, and illustrate its incorporation into a continuous method. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roth B.L.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
Gibbons S.,University College London |
Arunotayanun W.,University College London |
Huang X.-P.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
In this paper we determined the pharmacological profiles of novel ketamine and phencyclidine analogues currently used as 'designer drugs' and compared them to the parent substances via the resources of the National Institute of Mental Health Psychoactive Drug Screening Program. The ketamine analogues methoxetamine ((RS)-2-(ethylamino)-2-(3-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexanone) and 3-MeO-PCE (N-ethyl-1-(3-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexanamine) and the 3- and 4-methoxy analogues of phencyclidine, (1-[1-(3-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexyl]piperidine and 1-[1-(4-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexyl]piperidine), were all high affinity ligands for the PCP-site on the glutamate NMDA receptor. In addition methoxetamine and PCP and its analogues displayed appreciable affinities for the serotonin transporter, whilst the PCP analogues exhibited high affinities for sigma receptors. Antagonism of the NMDA receptor is thought to be the key pharmacological feature underlying the actions of dissociative anaesthetics. The novel ketamine and PCP analogues had significant affinities for the NMDA receptor in radioligand binding assays, which may explain their psychotomimetic effects in human users. Additional actions on other targets could be important for delineating side-effects. © 2013 Roth et al.
Jones S.,SPA Forensic Services |
Scott K.,SPA Forensic Services |
Lewis J.,Cellmark Forensic Services |
Davidson G.,United Road Services |
And 8 more authors.
Science and Justice | Year: 2016
The UK and Ireland Association of Forensic Science Providers' (AFSP) Body Fluid Forum (BFF) set out to assist in the interpretation of sexual offence cases where semen is absent on vaginal swabs but female DNA is present on penile swabs or male underwear, and the issue to be addressed is whether or not sexual intercourse occurred. This study aims to investigate the frequency and amount of female DNA transferred to the penis and underwear of males following staged nonintimate social contact with females and to compare the findings with the amount of female DNA transferred to the penis and subsequently to the underwear of a male who had engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse with a female. In this study, no matching female DNA was detected on the inside front of the 44 items of male underwear used in this research following staged contact of a nonintimate nature and subsequent secondary transfer to the penis. After sexual intercourse, full profiles matching the female participant were found on the inside front of the males underwear with maximum peak heights in the range between 1898 and 3157 rfu. It was possible to demonstrate that DNA can occasionally transfer to the waistband and outside front of underwear worn by a male following staged nonintimate social contact. Data obtained in this study suggest that a matching female DNA profile below a peak height of 1000 rfu on the waistband of a male's underwear might be explained by nonintimate social contact with secondary transfer of female DNA from the male's hands. © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences.
Haas C.,University of Zurich |
Hanson E.,University of Central Florida |
Anjos M.J.,National Institute of Legal Medicine |
Bar W.,University of Zurich |
And 31 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2012
A second collaborative exercise on RNA/DNA co-analysis for body fluid identification and STR profiling was organized by the European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP). Six human blood stains, two blood dilution series (5-0.001 μl blood) and, optionally, bona fide or mock casework samples of human or non-human origin were analyzed by the participating laboratories using a RNA/DNA co-extraction or solely RNA extraction method. Two novel mRNA multiplexes were used for the identification of blood: a highly sensitive duplex (HBA, HBB) and a moderately sensitive pentaplex (ALAS2, CD3G, ANK1, SPTB and PBGD). The laboratories used different chemistries and instrumentation. All of the 18 participating laboratories were able to successfully isolate and detect mRNA in dried blood stains. Thirteen laboratories simultaneously extracted RNA and DNA from individual stains and were able to utilize mRNA profiling to confirm the presence of blood and to obtain autosomal STR profiles from the blood stain donors. The positive identification of blood and good quality DNA profiles were also obtained from old and compromised casework samples. The method proved to be reproducible and sensitive using different analysis strategies. The results of this collaborative exercise involving a RNA/DNA co-extraction strategy support the potential use of an mRNA based system for the identification of blood in forensic casework that is compatible with current DNA analysis methodology. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.