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Jordan W.D.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Mehta M.,Vascular Group PLLC | Varnagy D.,Vascular Institute of Central Florida | Moore W.M.,Lexington Medical Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Vascular Surgery | Year: 2014

Objective Proximal attachment site complications continue to occur after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR), specifically type Ia endoleak and endograft migration. EndoAnchors (Aptus Endosystems, Sunnyvale, Calif) were designed to enhance endograft proximal fixation and sealing, and the current study was undertaken to evaluate the potential benefit of this treatmentMethods During the 23-month period ending in December 2013, 319 subjects were enrolled at 43 sites in the United States and Europe. EndoAnchors were implanted in 242 patients (75.9%) at the time of an initial EVAR procedure (primary arm) and in 77 patients with an existing endograft and proximal aortic neck complications (revision arm). Technical success was defined as deployment of the desired number of EndoAnchors, adequate penetration of the vessel wall, and absence of EndoAnchor fracture. Procedural success was defined as technical success without a type Ia endoleak at completion angiography. Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and interquartile rangeResults The 238 male (74.6%) and 81 female (25.4%) subjects had a mean age of 74.1 ± 8.2 years. Aneurysms averaged 58 ± 13 (51-63) mm in diameter at the time of EndoAnchor implantation (core laboratory measurements). The proximal aortic neck averaged 16 ± 13 (7-23) mm in length (42.7% <10 mm and 42.7% conical) and 27 ± 4 mm (25-30 mm) in diameter; infrarenal neck angulation was 24 ± 15 (13-34) degrees. The number of EndoAnchors deployed was 5.8 ± 2.1 (4-7). Technical success was achieved in 303 patients (95.0%) and procedural success in 279 patients (87.5%), 217 of 240 (89.7%) and 62 of 77 (80.5%) in the primary and revision arms, respectively. There were 29 residual type Ia endoleaks (9.1%) at the end of the procedure. During mean follow-up of 9.3 ± 4.7 months, 301 patients (94.4%) were free from secondary procedures. Among the 18 secondary procedures, eight were performed for residual type Ia endoleaks and the others were unrelated to EndoAnchors. There were no open surgical conversions, there were no aneurysm-related deaths, and no aneurysm ruptured during follow-up.Conclusions Use of EndoAnchors to treat existing and acute type Ia endoleaks and endograft migration was successful in most cases. Prophylactic use of EndoAnchors in patients with hostile aortic neck anatomy appears promising, but definitiveConclusions must await longer term follow-up data. © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery.


News Article | November 2, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Researchers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have developed a new, less invasive way to perform transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), a procedure widely used to treat aortic valve stenosis, a lethal heart condition. The new approach, called transcaval access, will make TAVR more available to high risk patients, especially women, whose femoral arteries are too small or diseased to withstand the standard procedure. The Journal of the American College of Cardiology published the findings. Aortic valve stenosis involves the narrowing of the heart's aortic valve which reduces blood flow through the heart. For about 85 percent of patients with this condition, doctors typically perform TAVR through the femoral artery in the leg. But for the other 15 percent, doctors must find a different access route. The most common alternative routes are through the chest, which requires surgery and are associated with significantly more complications. Transcaval access, which can be performed in awake patients, involves electrifying a small wire so that it crosses between neighboring blood vessels in the abdomen. The technique calls for making large holes in both the abdominal aorta and the inferior vena cava, which physicians previously considered dangerous because of the risk of fatal bleeding. The new method was developed by researchers at the National, Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and tested in a trial on 100 patients at 20 hospitals across the United States. Researchers said it proved successful in 99 of the patients. "This is a seminal study," said the lead author, cardiologist Adam B. Greenbaum, M.D., co-director of the Henry Ford Hospital Center for Structural Heart Disease, Detroit. "It challenged conventional wisdom, objecting to the idea of safe passage between the vena cava and the aorta. More important, it is the first of many non-surgical minimally-invasive tissue-crossing, or so-called transmural catheter procedures developed at NIH that can be applied to diverse fields of medicine." Robert J. Lederman, M.D., a senior investigator in NHLBI's Division of Intramural Research who led the study, said researchers developed the method to address a specific clinical need, even though they knew it would be a challenging proposition for most surgeons and physicians to accept. The proposed and counterintuitive mechanism of action is that bleeding from the aorta spontaneously decompresses into a corresponding hole the physician makes in the vein, because the surrounding area behind the peritoneum has higher pressure than the vein. The results of the research, which were independently confirmed by a committee of outside cardiologists, show the procedure not only has a high success rate, but also an acceptable rate of bleeding and vascular complications, particularly in the high risk patients studied. The study builds on the access technique that Lederman's NHLBI team developed and first tested in animals in 2012 and first applied with Henry Ford physicians to help patients in 2013. NHLBI and its collaborators are now working to find ways to train more specialists to perform the procedure. The study will also be presented on Monday, October 31 at the Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics conference in Washington, D.C. Co-authors include researchers from Henry Ford Hospital; Emory University, Atlanta; Oklahoma Heart Institute, Tulsa; Lexington Medical Center, West Columbia, South Carolina; and Oschner Medical Center, New Orleans.


Researchers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have developed a new, less invasive way to perform transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), a procedure widely used to treat aortic valve stenosis, a lethal heart condition. The new approach, called transcaval access, will make TAVR more available to high risk patients, especially women, whose femoral arteries are too small or diseased to withstand the standard procedure. The Journal of the American College of Cardiology published the findings. Aortic valve stenosis involves the narrowing of the heart's aortic valve which reduces blood flow through the heart. For about 85 percent of patients with this condition, doctors typically perform TAVR through the femoral artery in the leg. But for the other 15 percent, doctors must find a different access route. The most common alternative routes are through the chest, which requires surgery and are associated with significantly more complications. Transcaval access, which can be performed in awake patients, involves electrifying a small wire so that it crosses between neighboring blood vessels in the abdomen. The technique calls for making large holes in both the abdominal aorta and the inferior vena cava, which physicians previously considered dangerous because of the risk of fatal bleeding. The new method was developed by researchers at the National, Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and tested in a trial on 100 patients at 20 hospitals across the United States. Researchers said it proved successful in 99 of the patients. "This is a seminal study," said the lead author, cardiologist Adam B. Greenbaum, M.D., co-director of the Henry Ford Hospital Center for Structural Heart Disease, Detroit. "It challenged conventional wisdom, objecting to the idea of safe passage between the vena cava and the aorta. More important, it is the first of many non-surgical minimally-invasive tissue-crossing, or so-called transmural catheter procedures developed at NIH that can be applied to diverse fields of medicine." Robert J. Lederman, M.D., a senior investigator in NHLBI's Division of Intramural Research who led the study, said researchers developed the method to address a specific clinical need, even though they knew it would be a challenging proposition for most surgeons and physicians to accept. The proposed and counterintuitive mechanism of action is that bleeding from the aorta spontaneously decompresses into a corresponding hole the physician makes in the vein, because the surrounding area behind the peritoneum has higher pressure than the vein. The results of the research, which were independently confirmed by a committee of outside cardiologists, show the procedure not only has a high success rate, but also an acceptable rate of bleeding and vascular complications, particularly in the high risk patients studied. The study builds on the access technique that Lederman's NHLBI team developed and first tested in animals in 2012 and first applied with Henry Ford physicians to help patients in 2013. NHLBI and its collaborators are now working to find ways to train more specialists to perform the procedure. The study will also be presented on Monday, October 31 at the Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics conference in Washington, D.C. Co-authors include researchers from Henry Ford Hospital; Emory University, Atlanta; Oklahoma Heart Institute, Tulsa; Lexington Medical Center, West Columbia, South Carolina; and Oschner Medical Center, New Orleans. Part of the National Institutes of Health, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) plans, conducts, and supports research related to the causes, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of heart, blood vessel, lung, and blood diseases; and sleep disorders. The Institute also administers national health education campaigns on women and heart disease, healthy weight for children, and other topics. NHLBI press releases and other materials are available online at http://www. . About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit http://www. .


Ferraris V.A.,Lexington Medical Center | Ferraris V.A.,University of Kentucky | Ballert E.Q.,Lexington Medical Center | Ballert E.Q.,University of Kentucky | Mahan A.,University of Kentucky
American Journal of Surgery | Year: 2013

Background: Previous observations suggest that intraoperative blood transfusion (IBT) is a risk factor for adverse postoperative outcomes. IBT alters immune function and may predispose to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Methods: Patients in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database were studied over a 5-year period. Logistic regression identified predictors of SIRS. Propensity matching was used to obtain a balanced set of patients with equivalent preoperative risks for IBT. Results: Of 553,288 inpatients, 19,968 (3.6%) developed postoperative SIRS, and 40,378 (7.2%) received IBT. Mortality in patients with SIRS was 13-fold higher than in those without SIRS (13.5% vs 1.0%, P <.001). Multivariate analysis identified the amount of blood transfused during IBT as a significant predictor for development of SIRS (odds ratio, 2.2; P <.0001). After propensity matching, 33,507 matched patients with IBT had significantly increased risk for SIRS compared with non-SIRS matched patients (12.0% vs 6.5%, P <.001). Conclusions: There is a significant association between IBT and the development of SIRS. IBT may induce SIRS, and reductions in IBT may decrease the incidence of postoperative SIRS. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Lawson E.F.,University of California at San Diego | Lawson E.F.,Lexington Medical Center | Wallace M.S.,University of California at San Diego
Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology | Year: 2012

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intrathecal drug delivery (IDD) continues to gain relevance as a beneficial tool for the treatment of cancer pain, spasticity, and chronic nonmalignant pain. This review includes advances in recommendations for the use of IDD for cancer pain, nonmalignant pain, and spasticity, as well as a new study of cerebrospinal fluid kinetics, updates in logistics, and recent reports of complications. RECENT FINDINGS: Consensus-based guidelines support the use of IDD system (IDDS) in the treatment of cancer-related pain. IDDS with opioids in younger age groups may not be as successful as older patients due to tolerance issues. Research in new technologies to monitor and detect catheter breakage and disconnects is promising. There continues to be a need for more research in outcomes and new therapeutics for IDDS. SUMMARY: IDDS continues to play an important role in the management of severe intractable pain. However, the most important areas in need of advancement, outcome studies and new therapeutics, did not have any significant breakthroughs over the past year. There is some interesting preclinical work on new therapeutics but likely the translation into clinical practice will be challenging. More work is also needed on improving technologies that will result in less catheter breaks and disconnects. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.


Li Z.,Gill Heart Institute | Yang F.,Gill Heart Institute | Dunn S.,University of Kentucky | Gross A.K.,University of Kentucky | And 2 more authors.
Thrombosis Research | Year: 2011

Platelets occupy a central role at the interface between thrombosis and inflammation. At sites of vascular damage, adherent platelets physically and functionally interact with circulating leukocytes. Activated platelets release soluble factors into circulation that may have local and systemic effects on blood and vascular cells. Platelets can also interact with a wide variety of microbial pathogens. Emerging evidence from animal models suggests that platelets may participate in a wide variety of processes involving tissue injury, immune responses and repair that underlie diverse diseases such as atherosclerosis, autoimmune disorders, inflammatory lung and bowel disorders, host-defense responses and sepsis. In this review, we summarize the general mechanisms by which platelets may contribute to immune function, and then discuss evidence for their role in host defense responses and sepsis from preclinical and clinical studies.


Eaves-Leanos A.,Lexington Medical Center | Dunn E.J.,Lexington Medical Center | Dunn E.J.,University of Kentucky
Surgical Clinics of North America | Year: 2012

Many patients suffering adverse events in health care turn to the legal system to learn what happened to them and to seek compensation. Health care providers have ethical, professional, and legal duties to disclose the harmful effects of care to the patient, regardless of how small the risk. The purpose of open disclosure is to explain what happened to the patient and to seek a just outcome for patient and provider. This article explores our experience of managing and implementing an open disclosure program in an acute and chronic tertiary care facility with university affiliation in the Veterans Health Administration. © 2012.


Kasarskis E.J.,University of Kentucky | Kasarskis E.J.,Lexington Medical Center | Mendiondo M.S.,University of Kentucky | Matthews D.E.,University of Vermont | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

Background: Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) experience progressive limb weakness, muscle atrophy, and dysphagia, making them vulnerable to insufficient energy intake. Methods to estimate energy requirements have not been devised for this patient group. Objective: The goal was to develop equations to estimate energy requirements of ALS patients. Design: We enrolled 80 ALS participants at varying stages of their illness and studied them every 16 wk over 48 wk. At each time, we determined total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) in the home setting over a 10-d period by using the doubly labeled water method. We then developed statistical models to estimate TDEE by using factors easily obtained during a routine clinical visit. Results: The most practical TDEE models used the Harris-Benedict, Mifflin-St Jeor, or Owen equations to estimate resting metabolic rate (RMR) and 6 questions from the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) that relate to physical activity. We developed a Web-based calculator to facilitate its use. In the research setting, measuring body composition with bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy enabled the estimation of RMR with the Rosenbaum equation and the same 6 questions from the ALSFRS-R to estimate TDEE. By using these models, the estimate of TDEE for nutritional maintenance was ±500 kcal/d across the spectrum of ALS progression. Conclusions: Our results emphasize the importance of physical function and body composition in estimating TDEE. Our predictive equations can serve as a basis for recommending placement of a feeding gastrostomy in ALS patients who fail to meet their energy requirements by oral intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00116558. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.


Yost R.J.,Lexington Medical Center | Cappelletty D.M.,University of Toledo
Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2011

Study Objective. To compare the effectiveness of extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam with that of similar-spectrum, nonextended-infusion β-lactam antibiotics in the treatment of gram-negative infections. Design. Multicenter, retrospective medical record review. Setting. Fourteen hospitals throughout the United States. Patients. A total of 359 adults treated for gram-negative infections between January 1, 2007, and February 28, 2010, with either 4-hour extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam (186 patients) or nonextended-infusion comparator antibiotics (173 patients), which consisted of cefepime, ceftazidime, imipenem-cilastatin, meropenem, doripenem, or piperacillin-tazobactam. Measurements and Main Results. Deidentified data were collected on demographics, renal function, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, chronic health conditions, source of infection and type of organism, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, total length of stay, type and duration of antimicrobial therapy, and in-hospital mortality. The primary outcome was mortality rate of the patients receiving extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam versus those receiving nonextendedinfusion comparator antibiotics. Secondary outcomes were hospital length of stay, ICU length of stay, and total duration of antibiotic therapy. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups, except a significantly lower proportion of patients in the extended-infusion group were treated with a concomitant intravenous aminoglycoside (5.9% vs 16.2%, p<0.01), were infected with Pseudomonas species (22.6% vs 39.9%, p<0.01), or had positive respiratory cultures (30.7% vs 43.4%, p=0.01). Antibiotic duration, hospital length of stay, and ICU length of stay were similar between groups. In-hospital mortality was significantly decreased in the extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam group versus those receiving comparator antibiotics (9.7% vs 17.9%, p=0.02). Multivariate analysis confirmed that extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam prolonged survival by 2.77 days (p<0.01) and reduced the risk of mortality (odds ratio 0.43, p=0.05). Conclusion. Pharmacodynamic dosing using extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam demonstrated favorable outcomes, including mortality, when compared with nonextended-infusion, similar-spectrum β-lactams in the treatment of patients with documented gram-negative infections. Prospective, randomized trials are needed to further corroborate these findings.


News Article | February 21, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

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