Brommage R.,Lexicon Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2015
During the past two decades effective drugs for treating osteoporosis have been developed, including anti-resorptives inhibiting bone resorption (estrogens, the SERM raloxifene, four bisphosphonates, RANKL inhibitor denosumab) and the anabolic bone forming daily injectable peptide teriparatide. Two potential drugs (odanacatib and romosozumab) are in late stage clinical development. The most pressing unmet need is for orally active anabolic drugs. This review describes the basic biological studies involved in developing these drugs, including the animal models employed for osteoporosis drug development. The genomics revolution continues to identify potential novel osteoporosis drug targets. Studies include human GWAS studies and identification of mutant genes in subjects having abnormal bone mass, mouse QTL and gene knockouts, and gene expression studies. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that Wnt signaling plays a major role in regulating bone formation and continued study of this complex pathway is likely to lead to key discoveries. In addition to the classic Wnt signaling targets DKK1 and sclerostin, LRP4, LRP5/LRP6, SFRP4, WNT16, and NOTUM can potentially be targeted to modulate Wnt signaling. Next-generation whole genome and exome sequencing, RNA-sequencing and CRISPR/CAS9 gene editing are new experimental techniques contributing to understanding the genome. The International Knockout Mouse Consortium efforts to knockout and phenotype all mouse genes are poised to accelerate. Accumulating knowledge will focus attention on readily accessible databases (Big Data). Efforts are underway by the International Bone and Mineral Society to develop an annotated Skeletome database providing information on all genes directly influencing bone mass, architecture, mineralization or strength. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 2139-2145, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lexicon Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Date: 2013-06-10
Methods of improving the cardiovascular and/or metabolic health of patients, particularly those suffering from type 2 diabetes, are disclosed, as well as compounds and pharmaceutical compositions useful therein.
Lexicon Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Date: 2012-01-04
Methods of treating and managing ulcerative colitis, using imidazole-based compounds that inhibit S1P lyase, are disclosed.
Lexicon Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Date: 2015-02-25
Lexicon Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Date: 2013-11-18
Inhibitors of sodium glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1), compositions comprising them, and methods of their use to treat diseases and disorders such as diabetes are disclosed. Particular compounds are of the formula: the various substituents of which are defined herein.