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Lev-On M.,Levon Group | Lev-On P.P.,Levon Group
EM: Air and Waste Management Association's Magazine for Environmental Managers | Year: 2010

The much anticipated UN conference in Copenhagen, Denmark took place in December 2009. The process was marred from the start with questions concerning transparency and access to the negotiations. Differences emerged in the lead up to Copenhagen, where many of the countries in the developing world were anticipating further commitments for deep emission cuts by developed countries during a second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol, while developed countries were looking to negotiate a new protocol that better reflects the distribution of emissions among participating countries. Avoiding a total collapse, the heads of the BASIC group of countries (Brazil, South Africa, India, and China), were able to develop a last-minute, nonbinding political agreement, entitled the 'Copenhagen Accord'. The accord identifies climate change recognizes that deep cuts in GHGs will be required to limit the increase in global temperatures to below 2°C.


Ritter K.,American Petroleum Institute | Lev-On M.,Levon Group | Shires T.M.,URS Corporation
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE E and P Health, Safety, Security and Environmental Conference - Americas 2015 | Year: 2015

Natural gas production operations are rapidly expanding globally using advanced production techniques that are opening new areas to exploration and development. New production technologies and practices, including those involving hydraulic fracturing, have spurred growth in natural gas based power generation and industrial uses and is credited with reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with the co-benefit of improved air quality. At the same time, these emerging operating practices necessitate a thorough review of existing methane quantification methods for emissions associated with venting, flaring, and equipment leaks from natural gas systems and operations. To provide robust data for characterizing methane emissions from natural gas operations, the American Petroleum Institute (API) has been engaged in efforts to gather industry data and information from U.S. natural gas production companies and analyzing the extensive database being compiled in the U.S. under the national Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP). This paper describes industry's efforts to derive new emission factors to characterize key sources of natural gas production operations, including hydraulically fractured completions and workovers and gas well liquids unloading. The results of the analysis will include a comparison of new methane emission factors derived by industry to those used for the U.S. National GHG Inventory. The discussion will focus on evaluating the contribution of key sources to overall methane emissions in an effort to inform the public debate on natural gas use and its role in mitigating overall GHG emissions. Copyright 2015, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Ritter K.,American Petroleum Institute | Lev-On M.,Levon Group | Shires T.,URS Corporation
AIChE 2013 - 2013 AIChE Spring Meeting and 9th Global Congress on Process Safety, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2013

A discussion on the lessons learned from the initial phases of reporting for the Petroleum and Natural Gas systems covers the unique aspects of reporting GHG emissions for onshore oil and natural gas production operations; the need to balance reliable information and reporting burden; industry's commitment to continuous improvement; and the purpose of reporting to companies as a means to highlight altering practices, e.g., venting and flaring minimization, and reduction of environmental impacts of operations. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2013 AIChE Spring Meeting & 9th Global Congress on Process Safety (San Antonio, TX 4/28-5/2/2013).


Ritter K.,American Petroleum Institute | Shires T.M.,URS Corporation | Lev-On M.,Levon Group
SPE Economics and Management | Year: 2015

The recent rapid expansion of natural-gas developments and usage worldwide are bringing into focus the need to improve understanding and characterization of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emission sources, including methane (CH4), associated with petroleum and natural-gas systems. New production technologies and practices, including those involving hydraulic fracturing, necessitate a thorough review of existing quantification methods for fugitive CH4 emissions from venting, flaring, and equipment leaks associated with petroleum and natural-gas systems and operations. In the past few years, widely divergent estimates have emerged regarding CH4 emissions from the US natural-gas-industry sector. Some discrepancies noted by industry surveys have led to a thorough review of newly available information and are leading to the improvement of estimation methods and emission factors associated with activities that comprise natural-gas systems. This has manifested itself in the engineering estimations that are used for compiling the national GHG Emissions Inventory and in the methods used by companies for reporting under the mandatory national GHG Reporting Program. Both the inventory and the reporting program are programs of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This paper presents results of a comparative analysis of GHGemissions data, including CH4, for key industry segments such as on-shore natural-gas production and natural-gas processing and their contribution to the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems sector. The data analyzed will contrast the "top-down" assessments used in developing the GHG Emissions Inventory with the "bottom-up" estimation of actual emissions as reported under Subpart W of the GHG Reporting Program. The analysis will provide a comparison of the estimation methods and evaluation of the contribution of key sources with overall CH4 emissions. The ultimate goal of this effort is to incorporate the new information that is becoming available into consistent methods that can be used both for national GHG inventory development and for corporate reporting. Harmonization of these methods is expected to contribute to informing the public debate on naturalgas use and its role in mitigating overall GHG emissions. Copyright © 2015 Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Ritter K.,American Petroleum Institute | Crookshank S.,American Petroleum Institute | Lev-on M.,Levon Group | Shires T.,URS Corporation
Society of Petroleum Engineers - Carbon Management Technology Conference 2012 | Year: 2012

Carbon capture and geological storage (CCS) is a core element in the global strategy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper characterizes and contrasts the emission quantification methods associated with CCS projects from the perspective of voluntary emission reduction initiatives and recent regulatory reporting requirements under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP). From the regulatory perspective, the U.S. EPA is addressing the mandatory GHG reporting for CO 2 injection and potential geological storage, providing a different approach for facilities that supply CO2 to the market, those that inject CO2 for purposes of enhanced oil and gas recovery, and those that are engaging in long-term geological storage. Information gathered under the GHGRP will enable EPA to track the amount of CO2 supplied to the market, injected, and/or stored by U.S. facilities. In addition, where the CO2 injection facilities are also associated with other oil and gas operations, the GHGRP requires quantifying and reporting GHG emissions from those operations where the facilities meet specified regulatory thresholds. This information will be a key element in providing baseline data and activity information for the development of future emission standards and control techniques for GHG emission mitigation in the U.S. In addition to reporting initiatives, industry is providing guidance to support voluntary GHG reduction initiatives. The American Petroleum Institute (API) and the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA) have collaborated on a guideline document to promote the credible, consistent, and transparent quantification of GHG emission reductions from CCS projects (IPIECA/API, 2007). This document emphasizes that the entire range of activities associated with CCS - capture, transport, injection and storage - must be considered in quantifying emissions and emission reductions from CCS operations. This paper will examine common aspects and notable differences between the mandatory reporting programs and voluntary GHG emission reduction activities. It will specifically emphasize collateral characteristics such as the scope of emission sources, accuracy of quantification methods, reporting and monitoring requirements. Copyright 2012, Carbon Management Technology Conference.


Lev-On M.,Levon Group | Lev-On P.,Levon Group
EM: Air and Waste Management Association's Magazine for Environmental Managers | Year: 2011

The agreements signed during the meetings on global warming held in Copenhagen and Cancun, are presented. Indonesia at COP-13 in Bali, the international community agreed to the Bali Roadmap to guide negotiations toward an agreement aimed at replacing the Kyoto Protocol and creating a second commitment period under the UNFCCC. The Cancun Agreements main achievement is the import of essential elements from the Copenhagen Accord into the UNFCCC framework via a process of laborious negotiations by all member countries. The Cancun Agreements have managed to incorporate the mitigation targets and actions pledged under the Copenhagen Accord. The Cancun Agreements also take initial steps to operationalize the Copenhagen Accord by setting up the Green Climate Fund to assist developing countries, and by establishing a system of 'international consultations and analysis' to help verify individual countries' actions without influencing their sovereignty.


Ayalon O.,Samuel Neaman Institute | Lev-On M.,Levon Group | Lev-On P.P.,Samuel Neaman Institute
Air and Waste Management Association - Climate Change Conference 2013: Impacts, Policy and Regulation | Year: 2014

Israel has taken a major step forward towards planning for, and initiating the implementation of, measures that are expected to lead to GHG reductions that would benefit its economy. The action plan that was adopted is expected to lead to reductions of close to 16 MMT C02e. However, this amount is short by 6 million tonnes from the 22 million tonnes C02e emission reductions target that was previously declared. It is, therefore, essential to continuously review other actions that could be undertaken, either by mandatory measures and/or through voluntary initiatives, that could help in closing the gap between the targeted and the anticipated GHG emission reductions. A notable gap in the action plan presented is the issue of fuel switching in the power sector, including the introduction of renewable energy technologies, such as solar, wind and biomass, into the local energy market. In 2011 the government of Israel reaffirmed its commitment to a target of 10% electricity generation from renewable sources by 2020. However, a myriad of bureaucratic delays and financing difficulties, along with other regional geopolitical events, are jeopardizing attainment of these renewable electricity goals while energy demands are continuing to grow.


Ritter K.,American Petroleum Institute | Shires T.M.,URS Corporation | Lev-On M.,Levon Group
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment 2014: The Journey Continues | Year: 2014

The recent rapid expansion of natural gas developments and utilization worldwide are bringing into focus the need to improve understanding and characterization of greenhouse gas emission sources, including methane, associated with petroleum and natural gas systems. New production technologies and practices, including those involving hydraulic fracturing, necessitate a thorough review of existing quantification methods for fugitive methane emissions from venting, flaring, and equipment leaks associated with petroleum and natural gas systems and operations. In the past few years widely divergent estimates have emerged regarding methane emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry sector. Some discrepancies noted by industry surveys have led to a thorough review of newly available information and are leading to the improvement of estimation methods and emission factors associated with activities that comprise natural gas systems. This has manifested itself in the engineering estimations that are used for compiling the national U. S. GHG Emissions Inventory and in the methods used by companies for reporting under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. This paper will present results of a comparative analysis of GHG emissions data, including methane, for key industry segments such as on-shore natural gas production and natural gas processing and their contribution to the so called "petroleum and natural gas systems". The data analyzed will contrast the "top-down" assessments used in developing the U.S. GHG Emissions Inventory with the "bottom-up" estimation of actual emissions as reported under Subpart W of the GHGRP. The analysis will provide a comparison of the estimation methods and evaluation of the contribution of key sources to overall methane emissions. The ultimate goal of this effort is to incorporate the new information that is becoming available into consistent methods that can be used both for national GHG inventory development and for corporate reporting. Harmonization of these methods is expected to contribute to informing the public debate on natural gas use and its role in mitigating overall GHG emissions. Copyright 2013, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Ritter K.,American Petroleum Institute | Lev-On M.,Levon Group
EM: Air and Waste Management Association's Magazine for Environmental Managers | Year: 2015

Nations around the world are increasingly relying on natural gas to meet their electricity and heating needs. The two most important advantages of natural gas over coal for power generation are the higher efficiencies of gas turbines over coal units, and the lower emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and criteria pollutants.


Ritter K.,American Petroleum Institute | Lev-On M.,Levon Group | Shires T.,URS Corporation
Carbon Management | Year: 2014

Natural gas production is rapidly expanding globally using advanced techniques that are opening new areas to exploration and development. New techniques and practices, including those involving hydraulic fracturing, have spurred growth in natural gas based power generation that is credited with reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with the co-benefit of improved air quality. These new operating practices necessitate a thorough review of existing quantification methods for methane emissions. This paper addresses the wide ranging efforts undertaken by the American Petroleum Institute over the past decade, or more, to provide robust data for characterizing methane emissions from natural gas operations. Industry efforts to characterize emission sources that are unique to natural gas production operations are also described. In order to inform the public debate on natural gas use and its role in mitigating overall GHG emissions this paper includes a comparison of new methane emission factors derived by industry to those used for the US National GHG Inventory. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

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