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Almere Stad, Netherlands

Levitech B.V. | Date: 2011-01-31

A method, comprising: providing a process space atmosphere at a process space atmosphere pressure; providing an exterior atmosphere at an exterior atmosphere pressure that is different from the process space atmosphere pressure; providing a passage via which the exterior atmosphere is in open communication with the process space atmosphere, and via which substrates are exchangeable between the exterior atmosphere and the process space atmosphere; injecting an exchange fluid into the passage at at least one exchange fluid injection point, so as to effect a flow of exchange fluid that extends through at least a part of the passage, wherein said flow is directed towardsthe exterior in case the exterior atmosphere pressure is greater than the process space atmosphere pressure; orthe process space in case the exterior atmosphere pressure is smaller than the process space atmosphere pressure.

Levitech B.V. | Date: 2010-11-19

An apparatus (

Poodt P.,TNO | Cameron D.C.,Lappeenranta University of Technology | Dickey E.,Lotus Applied Technology | George S.M.,University of Colorado at Boulder | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films | Year: 2012

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a technique capable of producing ultrathin conformal films with atomic level control over thickness. A major drawback of ALD is its low deposition rate, making ALD less attractive for applications that require high throughput processing. An approach to overcome this drawback is spatial ALD, i.e., an ALD mode where the half-reactions are separated spatially instead of through the use of purge steps. This allows for high deposition rate and high throughput ALD without compromising the typical ALD assets. This paper gives a perspective of past and current developments in spatial ALD. The technology is discussed and the main players are identified. Furthermore, this overview highlights current as well as new applications for spatial ALD, with a focus on photovoltaics and flexible electronics. © 2012 American Vacuum Society. Source

Cesar I.,Energy Research Center of the Netherlands | Mewe A.A.,Energy Research Center of the Netherlands | Granneman E.,Levitech BV | Vermont P.,Levitech BV | Weeber A.W.,Energy Research Center of the Netherlands
Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference | Year: 2012

Silicon solar cells that dominate today's market are H-pattern cells based on p-type silicon wafer material with a full Al Back Surface Field (BSF) as rear contact. ECN's rear passivated bi-facial PASHA (Passivated on all sides H- pattern) and ASPIRe (All Sides Passivated and Interconnected at the Rear, MWT) concepts answer the market pressure to decrease the euro/watt price and increase the efficiency. For optimized cells we estimate 0.5-0.8% absolute higher cell efficiencies compared to the industrial standard due to better rear passivation and reflection, while thinner wafers <150um) can be processed with limited yield loss. In addition, Al paste consumption can be reduced by 50-70% owing to the open rear metallization. Here we report on the improved performance of PASHA cells passivated by an uncapped Al2O3 layer on the rear, through which Al paste is fired for contact and local aluminum BSF formation. The Al2O3 dielectric layer is deposited in the Levitrack, an industrial-type system for high-throughput Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) developed by Levitech. On Cz and mc material, a gain in JscxV oc of 1% and 2.5% respectively is obtained compared to the reference, at a rear metal fraction of 30%. Localized IQE mapping shows that the passivation quality of the Al2O3 passivation layer is maintained after firing which is a major improvement as compared to our previous report. Furthermore, reliability tests on single cell laminates (Cz cells) suggest that the passivation layer remains stable during the lifetime of a module. © 2012 IEEE. Source

Hennen L.,Levitech BV | Hennen L.,TU Eindhoven | Granneman E.H.A.,Levitech BV | Kessels W.M.M.,TU Eindhoven
Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference | Year: 2012

Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin films yield excellent surface passivation of silicon solar cells. However, unwanted delamination, known as blisters, can occur upon annealing. In this research, blistering is linked to hydrogen diffusion in the bulk. Results reveal competition between diffusion lateral and perpendicular to the interface. Therefore, large blister densities coincide with small blister diameters and vice versa. The total blister volume, however, is independent of blister size distribution, but linked to hydrogen diffusion from the Al2O3 bulk. The blister volume was determined using AFM measurements, which show identical blister shapes for different blister sizes. Additionally, no direct relationship between blister formation and minority carrier was found. © 2012 IEEE. Source

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