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Ang G.S.,Level 2 Industries | Wong T.,Level 2 Industries | Nicholas S.,Level 2 Industries | Wells A.P.,Level 2 Industries
Ophthalmology | Year: 2012

Purpose: To evaluate the correlations between pupil ruff changes and associated gonioscopy findings with intraocular pressure (IOP) and cup-to-disc ratio (CDR). Design: Prospective, observational, comparative study. Participants: A total of 103 patients from a glaucoma clinic population. Patients with pseudoexfoliation, previous intraocular surgery, and IOP-lowering medication were excluded. Methods: Pupillary ruff and associated gonioscopy findings were graded from photographs based on the pupil ruff atrophy (PRA) grading system. Parameters evaluated include pupillary ruff absence and abnormality, pupil edge pigment, and trabecular meshwork pigment. Inter-eye differences were determined and analyzed for correlations with inter-eye differences in IOP and CDR based on Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II imaging (Heidelberg Engineering, Dossenheim, Germany). Main Outcome Measures: Correlations between inter-eye PRA grading differences and inter-eye IOP and CDR differences. Results: A total of 103 patients were included, with a mean age of 64 years. The average amount of abnormal and missing ruff was 9.5 and 5 clock hours, respectively. Inter-eye IOP asymmetry was significantly associated with asymmetry of amount of abnormal ruff (P = 0.034) and amount of missing ruff (P = 0.022). Inter-eye CDR asymmetry was significantly associated with asymmetry of the amount of missing ruff (P = 0.001) and trabecular meshwork pigmentation (P = 0.006). The eye with the most pupillary ruff loss was 25% more likely to have the greater CDR. Conclusions: Asymmetric pupillary ruff changes were associated with asymmetry in both IOP and CDR. However, the clinical significance of this finding requires further evaluation. Financial Disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology.


Young T.K.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | Hardy T.G.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | Hardy T.G.,Level 2 Industries
Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery | Year: 2011

Solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit is a rare neoplasm that often follows a benign course. Additional involvement beyond the orbit is even rarer, having only been reported in 2 cases previously. The authors describe a 62-year-old patient with a primarily intracranial lesion including orbital extension which was debulked and initially diagnosed as meningioma. Two recurrences 3 and 4 years later disclosed a solitary fibrous tumor, with the initial histopathology being revised to the same diagnosis. This rare presentation of an orbital solitary fibrous tumor highlights the surgical challenge faced when the tumor straddles the cranio-orbital junction and demonstrates the potential for rapid regrowth after incomplete excision. © 2011 The American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Inc.


Background: Spasticity of muscles is a common consequence of central nervous system impairment. Traditionally, neurological rehabilitation for spasticity has involved occupational and physical therapy; however, increasingly Botulinum toxin-A injections may be provided. Injection effects are temporary. Consequently, understanding the effect of adjunct physical therapies will help inform multimodal rehabilitation decisions. Presently, these effects are not known. This systematic review will identify and summarize evidence on physical therapies used after Botulinum toxin-A injection to improve motor function in adults with neurological impairments.Method: Systematic searching of seven electronic databases will occur to identify relevant randomized trials. Available trial data will be extracted into a list of pre-defined primary outcomes, including range of movement, spasticity and functional limb use. Pre-defined secondary outcomes will also be reviewed where trials have these data available for reporting. Effects will be expressed as mean differences or standardized mean differences with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where possible, comparable results will be meta-analyzed, and a summary of the available pool of evidence produced.All randomized controlled trials will be rated using the PEDro methodological quality scale. Where possible, study data will be meta-analyzed using RevMan 5 Software. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO international prosepective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO 2011:CRD42011001491).Discussion: Review results will be the most comprehensive answer available to the following question: Are physical therapies clinically effective after Botulinum toxin-A injections in adults with neurological spasticity? Results will inform healthcare providers and managers who determine who gets access to and provision of Botulinum toxin-A injection and whether this is done with or without physical therapies. Results will inform the clinicians who conduct physical therapy following injection. This protocol provides readers with the scope and depth of a search that will ultimately answer a complex and pressing treatment question. The variability of current practice and high level of expense associated with multimodal rehabilitation means review results will be more useful and less contestable if the protocol is revealed in full through advance publication. © 2012 Kinnear; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Fujioka T.,University of Wollongong | Khan S.J.,University of New South Wales | Poussade Y.,Veolia Water Australia | Poussade Y.,Level 2 Industries | And 3 more authors.
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2012

N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and several other N-nitrosamines have been identified as probable human carcinogens. Here, we review key aspects related to the occurrence and removal of N-nitrosamines by reverse osmosis (RO) membranes in the context of indirect potable water reuse. A comprehensive analysis of the existing data reveals significant variations in the rejection of NDMA by RO membranes reported in the literature, ranging from negligible up to 86%. This review article provides some insight into the reasons for such variations by examining the available data on the effects of operating conditions on NDMA rejection. Amongst several operating parameters investigated so far in the literature, feed temperature, membrane permeate flux, feed solution pH and ionic strength were found to have considerable impact on NDMA rejection by RO membranes. In particular, it has been recently shown that seasonal changes in feed temperature (e.g. from 20 to 30 °C) can result in a significant decrease in NDMA rejection (from 49% to 25%). However, the combined effects of all operating parameters identified in the literature to date can only account for some of the variations in NDMA rejection that have been observed in full-scale RO plants. The impacts of membrane fouling and particularly chemical cleaning on the rejection of N-nitrosamines have not been fully investigated. Finally, this review article presents a roadmap for further research required to optimise the rejection of NDMA and other N-nitrosamines by RO membranes. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Mccall Howard P.,Level 2 Industries
Journal of Agrarian Change | Year: 2012

Fishing share systems that distribute 'fishing surplus' among crew are widespread in global fisheries. One recent analysis identifies the New England 'lay' share system as a form of 'non-capitalism' because of the way that surpluses are shared (St Martin 2007). Through ethnographic, historical and economic analysis of Scottish commercial nephrops trawler fisheries, this paper demonstrates that fishing share systems are adaptable to the exploitation of labour. While share systems seem to have their origins in shared ownership of fishing boats and gear, it is the present lack of this link in Scotland that has created the conditions for labour itself to become a commodity and share systems to function as a variable and casual wage. This paper argues that the dependence of the fishery on commodity production and its reliance on labour as a commodity makes it fully capitalist, even in the presence of a share system, and explores the social and ecological consequences of the development of these more conventionally capitalist class relations. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Vargas C.,Level Inc | Buchanan A.,Level 2 Industries
Water Practice and Technology | Year: 2011

Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant is one of three plants that contribute purified recycled water in the Western Corridor Recycled Water Scheme. The plant is required to treat reverse osmosis concentrate and to monitor nutrients and metals concentration prior to release into the Brisbane River. In addition, whole effluent toxicity test in the ROC is done annually and the receiving water is monitoring in the discharge outfall for nutrients and metals monthly. Results of these monitoring programs have shown full compliance with toxicity limits imposed by the regulator, and no increase in concentration of metals such as iron, nickel and copper or nutrients such as phosphorus and ammonia in the near field of the discharge outfall in the Brisbane River have been detected. Contrary, data show that the Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant has achieved nutrient reductions of phosphorus and nitrogen that would otherwise be release to the receiving water. © IWA Publishing 2011.


Ma G.S.-K.,University of Hong Kong | Malpas J.,University of Hong Kong | Xenophontos C.,University of Hong Kong | Chan G.H.-N.,University of Oxford | Chan G.H.-N.,Level 2 Industries
Journal of Petrology | Year: 2011

Late Miocene to Quaternary intraplate basaltic volcanism in the Al Ghab and Homs regions, northwestern Syria (the Al Ghab volcanic group and the Homs volcanic group), occurred roughly synchronously with the propagation of the Dead Sea Fault System in these regions. Petrographic evidence as well as major and trace element variations suggest that the basalts have undergone varying amounts of crystal fractionation of olivine ± clinopyroxene ± spinel, with feldspar fractionation only in the most evolved samples. The major and trace element chemistry and Nd-Sr-Pb isotopic variations of the basalts reflect both mantle source heterogeneity and relatively minor crustal contamination. Semi-quantitative assimilation-fractional crystallization modelling suggests that some samples may reflect assimilation of no more than 6% of upper continental crust, probably with Late Proterozoic Arabian Shield characteristics. Amongst the least crustally contaminated and relatively primitive samples, basanites are characterized by marked depletion of K, Rb and Zr relative to other neighbouring incompatible elements on primitive mantle normalized trace element diagrams. This, together with their low SiO2 and high TiO2 and Dy/Yb, is consistent with magma genesis involving a large proportion of garnet-bearing hornblendite or similar amphibole-rich metasomatic veins. Associated alkali and tholeiitic basalts with the higher SiO2, lower TiO2, less negative K, Rb and Zr anomalies, and moderately high Dy/Yb are consistent with melt extraction from a largely peridotitic mantle source. It is suggested that the compositional spectrum from basanite via alkali basalt to tholeiitic basalt can be explained by increasing degrees of metasomatic vein-wall-rock interaction, plus asthenospheric melt assimilation. In agreement with this is the identification of three distinct isotopic and chemical characteristics within the spectrum of mafic lavas, each of which can be referred to a unique mantle source (metasomatic vein, lithospheric wall-rock peridotite mantle and asthenospheric peridotite mantle). A decrease in eruption volume and increase in Si-undersaturation of the lavas from south (Homs) to north (Al Ghab) along the northern Dead Sea Fault System from latest Miocene to Quaternary times suggest a diminishing thermal perturbation and increasing importance of the amphibole-rich veins in magma genesis over time. It is proposed that the genesis of the oldest lavas reflects the arrival of asthenospheric melts beneath the Homs region, which with assimilation of lithospheric metasomatic veins and their wall-rocks produced the parental magmas of the Homs volcanic group. Subsequently, upwelling asthenospheric material could have been channelled northwards at the base of the lithosphere, presumably related to the northward propagation of the Dead Sea Fault System in the Pliocene. Cooling of this channelled asthenospheric material, which did not penetrate the lithosphere during this later period of magma genesis, provided the minimal thermal perturbation necessary for melting of amphibole-rich metasomatic veins and wall-rock peridotite within the lithosphere. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press.


Patent
Level 2 Industries | Date: 2012-07-20

An apparatus base is affixed by adhesive to a surface. The adhesive base may include a release ply and optional carrier. The base, made of a flexible film or more rigid material, is associated with fastener elements. The fasteners may be any of threaded bolt, post, boss, socket element (male or female threaded, or otherwise configured), snap connections or the like. The fasteners are received by a display housing frame. A visual display received within the housing may comprise an interactive touchscreen device or other electronic hardware.


Campling L.,Queen Mary, University of London | Havice E.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Mccall Howard P.,Level 2 Industries
Journal of Agrarian Change | Year: 2012

Capture fisheries are constituted through historically specific environmental conditions and social and economic relations of production. Fisheries, whether saltwater or freshwater, are an important source of animal protein, livelihoods and exchange value in international trade, and are presently undergoing rapid socio-ecological change. To explore the political economy and ecology of capture fisheries around the world, this paper synthesizes the insights of 11 empirical studies and places fisheries in the broader context of the capitalist relations of production through which they operate. The competitive market dynamics of fisheries production and consumption are examined, as well as the forms of social-property relations, social differentiation, labour exploitation and resistance that occur within them. This paper highlights some of the ways in which the unique combination of characteristics associated with fish and fisheries complement and complicate familiar questions in agrarian political economy. It concludes by identifying future research directions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


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