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Somerville M.,CSIRO | Chen C.,CSIRO | Alvear F. G.R.F.,Level 10 Capital | Nikolic S.,Level Inc
Advances in Molten Slags, Fluxes, and Salts: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Molten Slags, Fluxes and Salts 2016 | Year: 2016

Copper concentrates which have high silica but low iron contents are difficult to smelt using conventional two stage smelting processes. Direct to blister smelting is possible using either iron oxide fluxes to produce a fayalite type slag or silica and lime fluxes to produce a lime-silica-iron oxide slag. The benefits of lime and silica fluxing option, have been quantified using both thermodynamic modelling and a campaign of pilot scale TSL (Sirosmelt) direct to blister smelting. Direct to blister smelting simulations were made with the MPE thermodynamic package. The simulation results predicted that the copper losses to slag would be 7.9, 20.4 and 7.0% of input copper for the un-fluxed, iron oxide flux and the lime and silica fluxing scenario respectively. The slag make per unit of copper was 1.4 for the un-fluxed system, 2.4 for the iron oxide flux and 1.9 for the lime and silica fluxed systems. A series of pilot scale direct to blister smelting tests were conducted on the lime and silica fluxing system. The copper content of slag varied between 7 and 10% and increased slightly with excess oxygen in the system (smelting ratio). The slag make per unit of input copper varied between 1.5 and 2.4 which was in reasonable agreement with the calculated predictions. Copper losses to slag were mostly between 22 and 26% which is higher than predicted, due to the presence of entrained copper prills in the slag. © 2016 by The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society.


Condon W.,Level 10 Capital
Journal of Generic Medicines | Year: 2013

Since 2004, Reckitt Benckiser (Reckitt) has supplied Nurofen for Children in Australia together with a dosing system comprising a bottle, a bottle neck liner, and a flat-nosed syringe. That dispensing mechanism is the subject of a patent. GlaxoSmithKline introduced into the Australian market place its Children's Panadol 1-5 Years product (GlaxoSmithKline Product) together with a liquid- dispensing apparatus also consisting of a bottle, a bottle neck liner, and a syringe. Following introduction of the GlaxoSmithKline Product, Reckitt sued for patent infringement and obtained a preliminary injunction. © SAGE Publications.


Condon W.,Level 10 Capital | Lambert J.,Level 10 Capital
Journal of Generic Medicines | Year: 2012

The Australian Patents Act includes a provision which deems the supplier of a product to a person who will use that product in a manner which infringes a patent to infringe that patent as a contributory infringer. The concept of contributory patent infringement is one known to the patent laws of many countries, but in many respects the way in which Australian Courts have approached contributory patent infringement gives far greater scope to a patentee than in many of those jurisdictions. The consequence for the generic pharmaceutical industry in Australia is potentially far-reaching. This article looks at the practical consequences of some recent Australian Federal Court decisions which have been decided in the area and which create practical hurdles that any generic entrant into the Australian marketplace will need to navigate. © Griffith Hack Lawyers, 2012.


PubMed | University of Aveiro, Federal University of Tocantins and Level 10 Capital
Type: | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2015

A main source of uncertainty currently associated with environmental risk assessment of chemicals is the poor understanding of the influence of environmental factors on the toxicity of xenobiotics. Aiming to reduce this uncertainty, here we evaluate the joint-effects of two pesticides (chlorpyrifos and mancozeb) on the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus under different soil moisture regimes. A full factorial design, including three treatments of each pesticide and an untreated control, were performed under different soil moisture regimes: 25%, 50%, and 75% WHC. Our results showed that soil moisture had no effects on isopods survival, at the levels assessed in this experiment, neither regarding single pesticides nor mixture treatments. Additivity was always the most parsimonious result when both pesticides were present. Oppositely, both feeding activity and biomass change showed a higher sensitivity to soil moisture, with isopods generally showing worse performance when exposed to pesticides and dry or moist conditions. Most of the significant differences between soil moisture regimes were found in single pesticide treatments, yet different responses to mixtures could still be distinguished depending on the soil moisture assessed. This study shows that while soil moisture has the potential to influence the effects of the pesticide mixture itself, such effects might become less important in a context of complex combinations of stressors, as the major contribution comes from its individual interaction with each pesticide. Finally, the implications of our results are discussed in light of the current state of environmental risk assessment procedures and some future perspectives are advanced.


Baker-Gabb D.,wildlife ecologist PO Box 131 | Antos M.,Level 10 Capital | Brown G.,Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research
Ecological Management and Restoration | Year: 2016

A monitored population of the critically endangered Plains-wanderer (Pedionomus torquatus) on Victoria's Northern Plains declined by over 90% between 2010 and 2012 following an unusually wet year which led to flooding, excess grass growth and a major change in the structure of native grasslands. The Plains-wanderer population remained very low on private land during 2013 and 2014 when dry conditions prevailed and domestic stock overgrazed most of its favoured grasslands on red soil. Numbers also remained very low on public reserves despite grassland structure gradually improving there by 2014. In 2015, the population partially recovered in some grasslands protected from overgrazing. Grassland structure is critically important for Plains-wanderer conservation. The 'golf ball technique' proved to be a quick and effective method for measuring grassland structure; it offers a means of accelerating responses to habitat change because it can be easily used by land managers. © 2016 Ecological Society of Australia.


Preece N.,Charles Darwin University | Harvey K.,Coonawarra Base | Hempel C.,Level 10 Capital | Woinarski J.C.Z.,Charles Darwin University
Ecological Management and Restoration | Year: 2010

Summary: The Top End region of the Northern Territory, Australia, is noted for its relatively unmodified natural state. To gain some insight into the potential for maintaining ecosystem health in this region we undertook a study that assessed the distribution of weeds across very extensive transects. This weed survey was distinct from other studies in that many of the sample sites were distant from tracks or other infrastructure. Twenty-one weed species were recorded along 2000 km of transects. Weeds were reported from 18.7% of the 718 sample points. The incidence of weeds was found to be significantly associated with land tenure, being highest on pastoral lands and peri-urban areas, and very low on Aboriginal lands. The incidence of weeds increased significantly with increasing levels of infrastructure and with increasing proximity to watercourses. There are three main conclusions from this study. First, much of the Top End, particularly remote Aboriginal lands, has exceptionally low levels of weed infestation. Secondly, in such areas, given the relatively small extent of vegetation change through weed invasion, maintenance or re-imposition of traditional fire regimes should be achievable. Thirdly, there is substantial potential for spread of weeds to remote areas, with such spread most likely to occur through increased penetration by infrastructure. Importantly this study indicates that there is still opportunity to prevent widespread weed invasion across the Top End, which is timely given the current Government consideration of the potential for the region to support future agricultural expansion and the fast-paced development of mining, oil and gas resources. © 2010 Ecological Society of Australia.


Shima J.S.,Victoria University of Wellington | McNaughtan D.,Victoria University of Wellington | Strong A.T.,Victoria University of Wellington | Strong A.T.,Level 10 Capital
Marine Biology | Year: 2015

Intraspecific variation in coral colony growth forms is common and often attributed to phenotypic plasticity. The ability of other organisms to induce variation in coral colony growth forms has received less attention, but has implications for both taxonomy and the fates of corals and associated species (e.g. fishes and invertebrates). Variation in growth forms and photochemical efficiency of massive Porites spp. in lagoons of Moorea, French Polynesia (17.48°S, 149.85°W), were quantified in 2012. The presence of a vermetid gastropod (Ceraesignum maximum) was correlated with (1) reduced rugosity of coral colonies and (2) reduced photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) on terminal “hummocks” (coral tissue in contact with vermetid mucus nets) relative to adjacent “interstitial” locations (tissue not in contact vermetid mucus nets). A manipulative field experiment confirmed that the relative growth rate of coral tissue was greater in interstices than hummocks when vermetids were present and similar (but with a trend for faster growth on hummocks) when vermetids were absent. Collectively, these results indicate that vermetid gastropods interact (presumably via their mucus nets) with coral colony architecture to impair photochemical efficiency, reduce growth rates of specific portions of a coral tissue, and induce a smoothed colony morphology. Given that structural complexity of coral colonies is an important determinant of “habitat quality” for many other species (fishes and invertebrates), these results suggest that the vermetid gastropod, C. maximum (with a widespread distribution and reported increases in density in some portions of its range), may have important indirect effects on many coral-associated organisms. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Hipgrave D.B.,United Nations Childrens Fund China Country Office | Assefa F.,United Nations Childrens Fund Zimbabwe Country Office | Winoto A.,Level 10 Capital | Sukotjo S.,Level 10 Capital
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2012

Objective Distribution of breast milk substitutes (BMS) after the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake was uncontrolled and widespread. We assessed the magnitude of BMS distribution after the earthquake, its impact on feeding practices and the association between consumption of infant formula and diarrhoea among infants and young children.Design One month after the earthquake, caregivers of 831 children aged 0-23 months were surveyed regarding receipt of unsolicited donations of BMS, and on recent child-feeding practices and diarrhoeal illness. Setting Community-level survey in an earthquake-affected district. Subjects Primary caregivers of surveyed children.Results In all, 75 % of households with an infant aged 0-5 months and 80 % of all households surveyed received donated infant formula; 76 % of all households received commercial porridge and 49 % received powdered milk. Only 32 % of 0-5-month-old infants had consumed formula before the earthquake, but 43 % had in the 24 h preceding the survey (P < 0•001). Consumption of all types of BMS was significantly higher among those who received donated commodities, regardless of age (P < 0•01). One-week diarrhoea incidence among those who received donated infant formula (25•4 %) was higher than among those who did not (11•5 %; relative risk = 2•12, 95 % CI = 1•34, 3•35). The rate of diarrhoea among those aged 12-23 months was around five times the pre-earthquake rate.Conclusions There were strong associations between receipt of BMS and changes in feeding practices, and between receipt of infant formula and diarrhoea. Uncontrolled distribution of infant formula exacerbates the risk of diarrhoea among infants and young children in emergencies. © 2011 The Authors.


Coventry J.,Australian National University | Andraka C.,Sandia National Laboratories | Pye J.,Australian National University | Blanco M.,CSIRO | Fisher J.,Level 10 Capital
Solar Energy | Year: 2015

This paper examines the potential of sodium receivers to increase the overall solar-to-electricity efficiency of central receiver solar power plants, also known as solar tower systems. It re-visits some of the key outcomes and conclusions from past sodium receiver experiments, in particular those at Sandia National Laboratories and Plataforma Solar de Almeria in the 1980s, and discusses some current development activities in the area. It also discusses research in sodium receivers with a liquid-vapour phase change (heat pipes and pool boilers), to explore whether technologies developed for dish-Stirling systems have applicability for solar tower systems. Lessons learnt from experience in the nuclear industry with liquid sodium systems are discussed in the context of safety risks. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


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