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Bendayan M.,Defense Systems | Karsenty A.,Lev Academic Center | Chelly A.,Bar - Ilan University
2016 IEEE International Conference on the Science of Electrical Engineering, ICSEE 2016 | Year: 2016

A new type of silicon MOSFET transistor, coupling both electronic and optical properties, is developed in order to overcome the indirect silicon bandgap constraint, and to serve as a future light emitting device in NIR [0.8-2μm] range, as part of a new building block in integrated circuits allowing ultra-high speed processors. Such QW structure enables discrete energy levels for light emission. Model and simulations are presented. © 2016 IEEE.

Gabbai M.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Leichter I.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Leichter I.,Lev Academic Center | Mahgerefteh S.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | And 2 more authors.
Acta Radiologica | Year: 2015

Background: Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) enables tissue discrimination based on the X-ray attenuations at different photon energies emitted by the tube. The spectral dependencies of net X-ray attenuation can be analyzed and used to characterize specific materials. Purpose: To evaluate the capability of DECT to characterize and differentiate high-density materials, using spectral analysis. Material and Methods: Images of phantoms containing iodine, barium, gadolinium, and calcium solutions in five concentrations were obtained from three DECT scanners and with sequential scanning at different kV values from three conventional MDCT devices. DECT studies were performed with commercial dual-source and rapid kV-switching systems, and a spectral-detector CT (SDCT) prototype based on dual-layer detector technology. Spectral maps describing Hounsfield Units (HU) in low- versus high-energy images were calculated and characterizing curves for all materials were compared. Results: Spectral low- to- high energy maps yielded linear curves (R2=0.98-0.999) with increasing slopes for calcium, gadolinium, barium, and iodine, respectively. Slope differences between all material pairs were highest (reaching 45%) for DECT with dual-source (140/80 kV) and rapid kV-switching (60/80 keV), reaching statistical significance (P<0.05) with most techniques. Slope differences between all material pairs for sequential scanning were lower (reaching 32%). Slope differences lacked statistical significance for iodine-barium with two sequential-acquisition techniques and the dualsource DECT scanner, and the calcium-gadolium pair with the dual-source scanner. Conclusion: All designated techniques for dual-energy scanning provide robust and material-specific spectral characterization and differentiation of barium, iodine, calcium, and gadolinium, though to varying degrees. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014.

Heifetz E.M.,Lev Academic Center | Soller M.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem
BMC Genetics | Year: 2015

Background: High-resolution mapping of the loci (QTN) responsible for genetic variation in quantitative traits is essential for positional cloning of candidate genes, and for effective marker assisted selection. The confidence interval (QTL) flanking the point estimate of QTN-location is proportional to the number of individuals in the mapping population carrying chromosomes recombinant in the given interval. Consequently, many designs for high resolution QTN mapping are based on increasing the proportion of recombinants in the mapping population. Results: In the absence of residual polygenic variation, population sizes required for achieving given mapping resolution by the TRP-F2 design relative to a standard F2 design ranged from 0.289 for a QTN with standardized allele substitution effect = 0.2, mapped to an initial QTL of 0.2 Morgan to 0.041 for equivalent QTN mapped to an initial QTL of 0.02 M. In the presence of residual polygenic variation, the relative effectiveness of the TRP design ranges from 1.068 to 0.151 for the same initial QTL intervals and QTN effect. Thus even in the presence of polygenic variation, the TRP can still provide major savings. Simulation showed that mapping by TRP should be based on 30-50 markers spanning the initial interval; and on at least 50 or more G2 families representing this number of recombination points,. Conclusions: The TRP design can be an effective procedure for achieving high and ultra-high mapping resolution of a target QTN previously mapped to a known confidence interval (QTL). © 2015 Heifetz and Soller.

Azaria A.,Carnegie Mellon University | Richardson A.,Lev Academic Center | Kraus S.,Bar - Ilan University
CSCW 2015 - Proceedings of the 2015 ACM International Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing | Year: 2015

Extensive use of computerized forums and chat-rooms provides a modern venue for deception. We propose introducing an agent to assist in detecting and incriminating a deceptive participant. We designed a game, where deception in a text based discussion environment occurs. In this game several participants attempt to collectively detect a deceptive member. We compose an automated agent which participates in this game as a regular player. The goal of the agent is to detect the deceptive participant and alert other members, without raising suspicion itself. We use machine learning on the data collected from human players to design this agent. Extensive evaluation of our agent shows that it succeeds in raising the players collective success rate in catching the deceptive player. © 2015 ACM.

Nowik I.,Lev Academic Center
International Game Theory Review | Year: 2016

The purpose of this work is to offer for each player and any Nash equilibrium (NE), a measure for the potential risk in deviating from the NE strategy in any two person matrix game. We present two approaches regarding the nature of deviations: Strategic and Accidental. Accordingly, we define two models: S-model and T-model. The S-model defines a new game in which players deviate in the least dangerous direction. The risk defined in the T-model can serve as a refinement for the notion of “trembling hand perfect equilibrium” introduced by R. Selten. The risk measures enable testing and evaluating predictions on the behavior of players. For example: do players deviate more from a NE that is less risky? This may be relevant to the design of experiments. We present an Integer programming problem that computes the risk for any given player and NE. In the special case of zero-sum games with a unique strictly mixed NE, we prove that the risks of the players always coincide, even if the game is far from symmetry. This result holds for any norm we use for the size of deviations. We compare our risk measures to the risk measure defined by Harsanyi and Selten which is based on criteria of stability rather than on potential damage. We show that the measures may contradict. © 2016 World Scientific Publishing Company

Azaria A.,Carnegie Mellon University | Richardson A.,Lev Academic Center | Rosenfeld A.,Lev Academic Center
Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems | Year: 2015

Autonomous agents developed by experts are embedded with the capability to interact well with people from different cultures. When designing expert agents intended to interact with autonomous agents developed by non-game theory agents (NGTE), it is beneficial to obtain insights on the behavior of these NGTE agents. Is the behavior of these NGTE agents similar to human behavior from different cultures? This is an important question as such a quality would allow an expert agent interacting with NGTE agents to model them using the same methods that are used to model humans from different cultures. To study this point, we evaluated NGTE agents behavior using a game called the Trust–Revenge game, which is known in social science for capturing different human tendencies. The Trust–Revenge game has a unique subgame-perfect equilibrium strategy profile, however, very rarely do people follow it. We compared the behavior of autonomous agents to the actions of several human demographic groups—one of which is similar to the designers of the autonomous agents. We claim that autonomous agents are similar to human players from various cultures. This enables the use of approaches, developed for handling cultural diversity among humans, to be applied for interaction with NGTE agents. This paper also analyzes additional aspects of autonomous agents behavior and whether composing autonomous agents affects human behavior. © 2015 The Author(s)

Gallant R.,Lev Academic Center
Proceedings - 2016 IEEE International Conference on Software Science, Technology and Engineering, SwSTE 2016 | Year: 2016

In this paper, the author utilizes typical mistakes of third year undergraduate Computer Science and Software Engineering students in advanced software engineering courses to categorize and anticipates errors in engineering practice. In elementary courses, the students learn and apply techniques locally to relatively simple problems. In advanced courses the students are trained to select and integrate a number of techniques to solve several interdependent problems encountered in the development of complex systems. In this context, the work of Daniel Kahneman on System 1 (intuitive) and System 2 (rational) thinking is quite relevant to analysis of the patterns leading to cognitive errors. Implications for engineering practice are explored. © 2016 IEEE.

Zev A.,Lev Academic Center | Karsenty A.,Lev Academic Center | Chelly A.,Bar - Ilan University | Zalevsky Z.,Bar - Ilan University
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters | Year: 2016

The constantly growing use of real-time computing generates constant urge for much faster processors than those which are currently available in the market. Correspondingly, there is an accelerated development of new optics communication related applications and components. The effort to combine those two trends leads to the generation of new optoelectronic nanodevices. Such hybrid devices may allow high operation speed, reduced cross talk and other noises, low operation power, and obviate the need for the existing electro-optical convertors. In this letter, we present the design, simulation, fabrication, and characterization of an optoelectronic device based on silicon which is capable of speeding up the processing capabilities. This novel device is called silicon-on-insulator photo-activated modulator. The nature of the data flow in this device is electronic, while the modulation control command is optic. Since the external voltage in the final configuration design of the device is constant and no RC (electrical average response time) related delay is generated, faster operation rates are anticipated. This novel device can serve as a building block toward the development of optical data processing while breaking through the way to all optic processors based on silicon chips that are fabricated via typical microelectronics fabrication process. © 1989-2012 IEEE.

Nowik I.,Lev Academic Center
Proceedings - 2nd International Symposium on Stochastic Models in Reliability Engineering, Life Science, and Operations Management, SMRLO 2016 | Year: 2016

The purpose of this work is to offer for any zero-sum game with a unique strictly mixed Nash equilibrium, a measure for the risk when deviating from the Nash equilibrium. We present two approaches regarding the nature of deviations, strategic and accidental. Accordingly, we define two models, S-model and T-model. In each model we define risk measures for the row-player (PI) and the column player (PII). The S-model defines a new game in which players deviate in the least dangerous direction. The risk defined in the T-model can serve as a refinement for the notion of «trembling hand perfect equilibrium» introduced by Selten. We prove that a player can never deviate without any risk. We develop analytical methods for calculating the risks and the strategies that support it for each player in each of the S-and T-models. The risk measures defined here enables testing and evaluating predictions on the behavior of players. For example: Do players deviate more in a game with lower risks than in a game with higher risk? © 2016 IEEE.

Karsenty A.,Lev Academic Center | Chelly A.,Bar - Ilan University
Nano | Year: 2015

Nanoscale MOSFETs Gate-Recessed Channel (GRC) device with a silicon channel thickness (tSI) as low as 2.2 nm was first tested at room temperature for functionality check, and then tested at low temperature (77 K) for I-V characterizations. In spite of its FD-SOI nanoscale thickness, the GRC device has surprisingly exhibited a Kink Effect in the output characteristics at 77 K. The anomalous Kink Effect can be explained by the increase of the lateral electric field in the drain junction with the channel extension zone when lowering the temperature. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company.

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