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Zacher H.,University of Queensland | Rosing K.,Leuphana University | Henning T.,Justus Liebig University | Frese M.,National University of Singapore
Psychology and Aging | Year: 2011

In this study, the authors investigated leader generativity as a moderator of the relationships between leader age, leader-member exchange, and three criteria of leadership success (follower perceptions of leader effectiveness, follower satisfaction with leader, and follower extra effort). Data came from 128 university professors paired with one research assistant each. Results showed positive relationships between leader age and leader generativity, and negative relationships between leader age and follower perceptions of leader effectiveness and follower extra effort. Consistent with expectations based on leadership categorization theory, leader generativity moderated the relationships between leader age and all three criteria of leadership success, such that leaders high in generativity were better able to maintain high levels of leadership success at higher ages than leaders low in generativity. Finally, results of mediated moderation analyses showed that leader-member exchange quality mediated these moderating effects. The findings suggest that, in combination, leader age and the age-related construct of generativity importantly influence leadership processes and outcomes. © 2011 American Psychological Association.


Gutianshan National Nature Reserve in Zheijiang, is located west of Shanghai in China. Credit: Helge Bruelheide, MLU/iDiv Many of the previous studies on global species diversity are inaccurate. These are the conclusions of an international research group, led by Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) in collaboration with the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research Halle - Jena - Leipzig (iDiv), which carried out a long-term study on biodiversity in the subtropical forests of China. The study shows that there might be an under- or overestimation of global biodiversity by up to 50 per cent when the survey is based on only a few taxa. The study's findings were published in the journal "Nature Communications". The international research group "BEF-China" received funding from the German Research Foundation (DFG) for a period of eight years. Its aim was to determine the diversity of the species present in an ecosystem. "This presents a massive challenge, particularly for tropical and subtropical forest ecosystems that have a rich variety of species," says Professor Helge Bruelheide from the Institute of Biology at MLU who led the research group. Even though the global diversity of plant species is well known, there are only a few studies that have attempted to record the variety of animal species - from the bugs found under bark to web-building spiders - as well as the plant species found in these forests. The tiny living creatures - such as the fungi and bacteria in the soil that are useful and harmful to plants - have often been disregarded. "All of these species are what makes up global biodiversity," Bruelheide explains. This is why many of the studies investigating the scale of this biodiversity have only been speculation. The international research team now has sound estimates in China about the number of species belonging to 43 different major taxa. These estimates are based on individual test plots as well as on an entire nature reserve. "A key feature of our project region is that it reflects the current situation of the earth's forests better than the tropical lowland rainforests which have been the main focus of many studies up until now," says Dr Andreas Schuldt from Leuphana University Lüneburg, the lead author of the study. "Forty-seven per cent of the humid tropical and subtropical forests occur in mountainous regions, a situation that is very similar to our project region. We can now assume that, in regions with different altitudes, slopes and solar orientation, species numbers increase at a different rate according to area than in lowland rain forests." The majority of rainforest research has focused on the more accessible lowland rainforests. This new study underscores the necessity of carrying out more intensive investigations in the mountainous rainforests, says Schuldt. Another new feature of this study is the way it combines traditional ways of determining species with modern methods of DNA analysis. This allows scientists to determine the number of bacteria and fungi taxa found in soil. This important contribution was made by Dr Tesfaye Wubet and Professor François Buscot from the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) in Halle. The team took a complete inventory of 27 sample plots in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve in Zhejiang province west of Shanghai. The scientists were able to record in excess of 77,000 individuals from more than 1,000 plant and animal species, and 6,000 microorganism taxa. Geobotanist Helge Bruelheide adds: "This work is an example of why long-term research is so essential. Studies such as this cannot be achieved within the usual funding period of three years. They require years of repeated investigations on numerous sample plots." The numbers show that, according to the researchers' projections, one ha of subtropical forest can capture around 38 per cent of all species while 10 ha can capture 76 per cent of the species. "This reveals the limited informational value of sample plots with very selective distribution globally," says Bruelheide. The larger the area and the number of woody plants, i.e. trees and shrubs, the less precisely one can predict the overall diversity of other taxa. Methods of spatial statistics were integrated into the study to lay the foundations for more precise future predictions about the number of species found in large areas, such as entire continents, based on environmental conditions. Explore further: Fungi, often seen as pests, play a crucial role policing biodiversity in rainforests More information: Andreas Schuldt et al. Multitrophic diversity in a biodiverse forest is highly nonlinear across spatial scales, Nature Communications (2015). DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10169


News Article | April 12, 2016
Site: phys.org

Large carnivores such as brown bears or wolves—so-called top predators—play a crucial role in the regulation of wildlife populations even in human-dominated ecosystems. This is the result of a joint study by scientists of the Leuphana University Lueneburg, the Humboldt University Berlin and the Charles Sturt University and the Deakin University (both Australia), recently published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B. That top predators are important for the regulation of the ecosystem in natural landscapes is well known.


Cuijpers P.,VU University Amsterdam | Cuijpers P.,Leuphana University | Sijbrandij M.,VU University Amsterdam | Koole S.L.,VU University Amsterdam | And 4 more authors.
World Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Although psychotherapy and antidepressant medication are efficacious in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders, it is not known whether they are equally efficacious for all types of disorders, and whether all types of psychotherapy and antidepressants are equally efficacious for each disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies in which psychotherapy and antidepressant medication were directly compared in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Systematic searches in bibliographical databases resulted in 67 randomized trials, including 5,993 patients that met inclusion criteria, 40 studies focusing on depressive disorders and 27 focusing on anxiety disorders. The overall effect size indicating the difference between psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy after treatment in all disorders was g=0.02 (95% CI: -0.07 to 0.10), which was not statistically significant. Pharmacotherapy was significantly more efficacious than psychotherapy in dysthymia (g=0.30), and psychotherapy was significantly more efficacious than pharmacotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder (g=0.64). Furthermore, pharmacotherapy was significantly more efficacious than non-directive counseling (g=0.33), and psychotherapy was significantly more efficacious than pharmacotherapy with tricyclic antidepressants (g=0.21). These results remained significant when we controlled for other characteristics of the studies in multivariate meta-regression analysis, except for the differential effects in dysthymia, which were no longer statistically significant. Copyright © 2013 World Psychiatric Association.


Andersson G.,Linköping University | Andersson G.,Karolinska Institutet | Cuijpers P.,VU University Amsterdam | Carlbring P.,University of Stockholm | And 3 more authors.
World Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been tested in many research trials, but to a lesser extent directly compared to faceto- face delivered cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of trials in which guided ICBT was directly compared to face-to-face CBT. Studies on psychiatric and somatic conditions were included. Systematic searches resulted in 13 studies (total N=1053) that met all criteria and were included in the review. There were three studies on social anxiety disorder, three on panic disorder, two on depressive symptoms, two on body dissatisfaction, one on tinnitus, one on male sexual dysfunction, and one on spider phobia. Face-to-face CBT was either in the individual format (n=6) or in the group format (n=7). We also assessed quality and risk of bias. Results showed a pooled effect size (Hedges' g) at post-treatment of -0.01 (95% CI: -0.13 to 0.12), indicating that guided ICBT and face-to-face treatment produce equivalent overall effects. Study quality did not affect outcomes. While the overall results indicate equivalence, there are still few studies for each psychiatric and somatic condition and many conditions for which guided ICBT has not been compared to face-to-face treatment. Thus, more research is needed to establish equivalence of the two treatment formats.


Cuijpers P.,VU University Amsterdam | Cuijpers P.,Leuphana University | Sijbrandij M.,VU University Amsterdam | Koole S.L.,VU University Amsterdam | And 4 more authors.
World Psychiatry | Year: 2014

We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized trials in which the effects of treatment with antidepressant medication were compared to the effects of combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in adults with a diagnosed depressive or anxiety disorder. A total of 52 studies (with 3,623 patients) met inclusion criteria, 32 on depressive disorders and 21 on anxiety disorders (one on both depressive and anxiety disorders). The overall difference between pharmacotherapy and combined treatment was Hedges' g = 0.43 (95% CI: 0.31-0.56), indicating a moderately large effect and clinically meaningful difference in favor of combined treatment, which corresponds to a number needed to treat (NNT) of 4.20. There was sufficient evidence that combined treatment is superior for major depression, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The effects of combined treatment compared with placebo only were about twice as large as those of pharmacotherapy compared with placebo only, underscoring the clinical advantage of combined treatment. The results also suggest that the effects of pharmacotherapy and those of psychotherapy are largely independent from each other, with both contributing about equally to the effects of combined treatment. We conclude that combined treatment appears to be more effective than treatment with antidepressant medication alone in major depression, panic disorder, and OCD. These effects remain strong and significant up to two years after treatment. Monotherapy with psychotropic medication may not constitute optimal care for common mental disorders. Copyright © 2014 World Psychiatric Association.


News Article | November 10, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Making a very precise offer for a car or a house may hurt your chances of success if you're negotiating with someone who has expertise in that area, according to research published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. Results from a series of studies show that precise bids - for example, $9,572.36 or $384,961.42 - are more effective with novice negotiators, who tend to interpret higher precision as a sign of competence. Experts, on the other hand, found moderately precise bids to be most persuasive. "Our research shows that more precise opening prices can yield you a significant negotiation advantage, but you have to know whom you're negotiating with," says David D. Loschelder of Leuphana University Lüneberg in Germany. "With amateurs, this number should be very precise; with experts, however, negotiators should either choose a moderate level of precision or back up their highly precise number with a compelling reason." Loschelder became interested in the effects of precise numbers when he had to negotiate the price of a rental bicycle as a graduate student. "The student who rented the bicycle to me asked for €34.50 for a period of four weeks. Not €30, not €35, not even €32, but exactly €34.50--a precise number that can't really be divided by four weeks," he explains. "As a consequence of this precision, I felt my counterpart was overly competent and I didn't even negotiate for a single cent." Loschelder and colleagues speculated that there must be a limit to the effectiveness of precision, but their initial studies with amateur negotiators showed that very precise opening bids created surprisingly strong anchor points that shaped subsequent counteroffers and final deal terms. The researchers decided to examine the effects that such precision has in the context of real-world expertise. In one experiment, 230 novice negotiators and 223 real-estate agents examined and evaluated a real-estate listing. Participants received the same pictures, floor plans, and other information, but the list prices they saw ranged from only two precise digits (e.g., €980,000) to eight precise digits (e.g., €978,781.63). They were instructed to make a counteroffer in response to the list price and to state the highest price they would be willing to pay for the house. The results showed that participants responded to precision differently depending on their expertise. Amateurs' counteroffers and maximum prices increased as the precision of the initial bid increased. The same was true for experts, but only up to around 5 precise digits; after this point, experts' counteroffers actually decreased as the list price became more precise. Loschelder and colleagues found the same pattern of results when they asked novices and expert jewelers to evaluate a diamond necklace. The researchers hypothesized that both amateurs and experts find highly precise bids to be unusual but they come to different conclusions as to why the seller made that particular bid. "Interestingly, amateurs seem to think: 'Oh, this number is so precise, my opponent must have thought quite a bit about a fair price. He or she must be really competent,'" Loschelder explains. "In contrast, experts perceive this as too-precise a price and denigrate their opponent's competence." Indeed, additional data indicated that perceived competence explained the responses of both amateur and expert participants. While amateurs saw more precise offers as a sign of a competent bidder, experts considered very precise bidders to be less competent than those who made moderately precise bids. Interestingly, providing experts with a rationale for the bid seems to counteract the negative effect of precision. When car salespeople evaluated a very precise bid for a car that took various conditions - such as recent inspections, a small scratch, and long-distance usage - into account, they were willing to pay just as much as they would in response to a moderately precise bid. The results showed that including an explanation for a very precise bid made the seller appear more competent to the car experts. Given that negotiations over things like a starting salary or the price of a house are an important part of everyday life, the findings have broad relevance: "Whenever something is listed at a price, whenever someone opens a negotiation, price precision can come into play and you should pay close attention to your opponent's negotiation expertise," Loschelder concludes. Co-authors on the research include Malte Friese of Saarland University, Michael Schaerer of INSEAD, and Adam D. Galinsky of Columbia Business School. This research was supported by a grant from the German Academic Exchange Service to D. D. Loschelder and by a grant from the German Research Foundation to D. D. Loschelder and M. Friese (DFG LO-2201/2-1). For more information about this study, please contact: David D. Loschelder at david.loschelder@leuphana.de. The article abstract is available online: http://pss. The APS journal Psychological Science is the highest ranked empirical journal in psychology. For a copy of the article "The Too-Much-Precision Effect: When and Why Precise Anchors Backfire With Experts" and access to other Psychological Science research findings, please contact Anna Mikulak at 202-293-9300 or amikulak@psychologicalscience.org.


News Article | December 6, 2016
Site: www.prnewswire.co.uk

Open for registration now under pisa4u.org - up to 10.000 education professionals expected to participate globally The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), together with CANDENA, have announced today in London the official launch of pisa4u ("PISA For You"), The Online Programme for School Improvement. This unique collaborative online programme empowers educational practitioners to learn from one another, drive meaningful change in school systems around the globe, and create an international database of teaching resources that will be accessible to educators worldwide. The programme is made possible through the generous support of America Achieves and Deutsche Telekom Stiftung. The Northwest Evaluation Association is associated with pisa4u. It has been conceptually designed, implemented and administered by CANDENA GmbH. The programme will commence on February 9th, 2017. It will be free of charge to teachers and other education professionals such as administrators, policy makers, and parents. Based on a collaborative eDidactic format, participants will work in teams on a series of successive assignments that guide them towards designing new educational resources and solutions that address their immediate needs. They will benefit from learning resources from experts in education and best practices from international school cases, as well as mentorship and peer feedback throughout the programme. Registration is now open at http://www.pisa4u.org. Andreas Schleicher, OECD Director for the Directorate of Education and Skills, is excited to welcome pisa4u as "the eyes and ears of PISA." He notes that "By going beyond benchmarking and asking: what exactly can we do to drive improvements, it will make PISA an even more relevant instrument to improve our education systems." Holm Keller, Chairman of CANDENA, adds: "Collectively creating a global repository of best-in-class teaching resources and making it available to every educator in the world free of charge is a major step to more equality in education." By providing an environment for ideation and co-creation, this programme fills the need of schools and educators to connect and collaborate across silos and regions. Under the PISA umbrella, participants will address gaps in student performance collectively and gain access to teaching resources built by practitioners for practitioners. CANDENA's CEO Alexander Jahn summarizes: "There is no shortage of powerful ideas. But people often lack the relationships and resources for bringing their ideas to life. We are here to fill this void and help everyone find like-minded peers and develop solutions together." The ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT is a unique forum where governments work together to address the economic, social and environmental challenges of globalization. The OECD is also at the forefront of efforts to understand and to help governments respond to new developments and concerns, such as corporate governance, the information economy and the challenges of an aging population. The organisation provides a setting where governments can compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practice and work to co-ordinate domestic and international policies. AMERICA ACHIEVES is a nonprofit organisation dedicated to inspiring and equipping Americans to raise the bar in education and drive investment in what works so that each young person can succeed in a changing world. The America Achieves community draws upon years of experience and demonstrated track records in education, building strong non-profits, advising and shaping local and national policy, and helping to drive large-scale outcomes for young people. Founded by educators nearly 40 years ago, NORTHWEST EVALUATION ASSOCIATION (NWEA) is a global not-for-profit educational services organisation. More than 7,400 partners in U.S. schools, districts, education agencies, and international schools trust them to offer pre-kindergarten through grade 12 assessments that accurately measure student growth and learning needs, professional development that fosters educators' ability to accelerate student learning, and research that supports assessment validity and data interpretation. DEUTSCHE TELEKOM STIFTUNG was established in 2003 to strengthen Germany's position as an education, research and technology leader. With an endowment of EUR 150 million, it is one of the country's largest corporate foundations. Its mission is to improve education in the digital world, concentrating on the so called STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering and mathematics). CANDENA is a multi-award winning learning technologies company founded to enable organizations to reach global audiences and engage them with inspiring educational offerings. It is a spin-off from Lüneburg's Leuphana University in Northern Germany and has been created as part of the University's EU Innovation Incubator. For more information visit http://www.candena.com.


Allen R.,Leuphana University
Journal of Gaming and Virtual Worlds | Year: 2014

America's Army, the official and free downloadable US Army video game franchise, has been continually updated with new versions for the past twelve years. Formerly managed out of the Office for Economic and Manpower Analysis (OEMA) at West Point, it has been an immersive, interactive advertisement for the Army, resting its rationale within in a military desire to recruit in a cost-effective way a new kind of 'talented' soldier. This reflects a military desire to, in the words of an OEMA publication, 'move the Army beyond personnel management to talent management'. Drawing on a 2009 interview with OEMA director Colonel Casey Wardynski (retired), I argue that America's Army has been primarily oriented towards recruiting the labour of a new kind of post-Fordist soldier-one who is part of the growing mass of immaterial labourers who can be identified as 'the cognitariat'. [Our] charter is to build the Army of the future. It’s about recruiting talent, assessing talent, deploying talent, and retaining talent. © 2014 Intellect Ltd Interview.


News Article | November 11, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Making a very precise offer for a car or a house may hurt your chances of success if you're negotiating with someone who has expertise in that area, according to research published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. Results from a series of studies show that precise bids -- for example, $9,572.36 or $384,961.42 -- are more effective with novice negotiators, who tend to interpret higher precision as a sign of competence. Experts, on the other hand, found moderately precise bids to be most persuasive. "Our research shows that more precise opening prices can yield you a significant negotiation advantage, but you have to know whom you're negotiating with," says David D. Loschelder of Leuphana University Lüneberg in Germany. "With amateurs, this number should be very precise; with experts, however, negotiators should either choose a moderate level of precision or back up their highly precise number with a compelling reason." Loschelder became interested in the effects of precise numbers when he had to negotiate the price of a rental bicycle as a graduate student. "The student who rented the bicycle to me asked for €34.50 for a period of four weeks. Not €30, not €35, not even €32, but exactly €34.50 -- a precise number that can't really be divided by four weeks," he explains. "As a consequence of this precision, I felt my counterpart was overly competent and I didn't even negotiate for a single cent." Loschelder and colleagues speculated that there must be a limit to the effectiveness of precision, but their initial studies with amateur negotiators showed that very precise opening bids created surprisingly strong anchor points that shaped subsequent counteroffers and final deal terms. The researchers decided to examine the effects that such precision has in the context of real-world expertise. In one experiment, 230 novice negotiators and 223 real-estate agents examined and evaluated a real-estate listing. Participants received the same pictures, floor plans, and other information, but the list prices they saw ranged from only two precise digits (e.g., €980,000) to eight precise digits (e.g., €978,781.63). They were instructed to make a counteroffer in response to the list price and to state the highest price they would be willing to pay for the house. The results showed that participants responded to precision differently depending on their expertise. Amateurs' counteroffers and maximum prices increased as the precision of the initial bid increased. The same was true for experts, but only up to around 5 precise digits; after this point, experts' counteroffers actually decreased as the list price became more precise. Loschelder and colleagues found the same pattern of results when they asked novices and expert jewelers to evaluate a diamond necklace. The researchers hypothesized that both amateurs and experts find highly precise bids to be unusual but they come to different conclusions as to why the seller made that particular bid. "Interestingly, amateurs seem to think: 'Oh, this number is so precise, my opponent must have thought quite a bit about a fair price. He or she must be really competent,'" Loschelder explains. "In contrast, experts perceive this as too-precise a price and denigrate their opponent's competence." Indeed, additional data indicated that perceived competence explained the responses of both amateur and expert participants. While amateurs saw more precise offers as a sign of a competent bidder, experts considered very precise bidders to be less competent than those who made moderately precise bids. Interestingly, providing experts with a rationale for the bid seems to counteract the negative effect of precision. When car salespeople evaluated a very precise bid for a car that took various conditions -- such as recent inspections, a small scratch, and long-distance usage -- into account, they were willing to pay just as much as they would in response to a moderately precise bid. The results showed that including an explanation for a very precise bid made the seller appear more competent to the car experts. Given that negotiations over things like a starting salary or the price of a house are an important part of everyday life, the findings have broad relevance: "Whenever something is listed at a price, whenever someone opens a negotiation, price precision can come into play and you should pay close attention to your opponent's negotiation expertise," Loschelder concludes.

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