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Loschelder D.D.,Saarland University | Swaab R.I.,Organizational Behavior Area | Trotschel R.,Leuphana University
Psychological Science | Year: 2014

The current research establishes a first-mover disadvantage in negotiation. We propose that making the first offer in a negotiation will backfire when the sender reveals private information that an astute recipient can leverage to his or her advantage. In two experiments, we manipulated whether the first offer was purely distributive or revealed that the sender's preferences were compatible with the recipient's preferences (i.e., the negotiators wanted the same outcome on an issue). When first offers contained only distributive issues, the classic first-mover advantage occurred, and first offers predicted final prices. However, a first-mover disadvantage emerged when senders opened with offers that revealed compatible preferences. These effects were moderated by negotiators' social value orientation: Proself negotiators were more likely to take advantage of compatible information than were prosocial negotiators. Overall, the key factor that determined whether the first-mover advantage or disadvantage emerged was whether the offer revealed compatible preferences. These results demonstrate that first offers not only provide numerical value but also convey qualitative information. © The Author(s) 2014.

Cuijpers P.,VU University Amsterdam | Cuijpers P.,Leuphana University | Turner E.H.,Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Turner E.H.,Oregon Health And Science University | And 3 more authors.
Depression and Anxiety | Year: 2014

Background Randomized trials can show whether a treatment effect is statistically significant and can describe the size of the effect. There are, however, no validated methods available for establishing the clinical relevance of these outcomes. Recently, it was proposed that a standardized mean difference (SMD) of 0.50 be used as cutoff for clinical relevance in the treatment of depression. Methods We explore what the effect size means and why the size of an effect has little bearing on its clinical relevance. We will also examine how the "minimally important difference," as seen from the patient perspective, may be helpful in deciding where the cutoff for clinical relevance should be placed for a given condition. Results Effect sizes in itself cannot give an indication of the clinical relevance of an intervention because the outcome itself determines the clinical relevance and not only the size of the effects. The "minimal important difference" (MID) could be used as a starting point for pinpointing the cutoff for clinical relevance. A first, rough attempt to implement this approach for depression resulted in a tentative clinical relevance cutoff of SMD = 0.24. Using this cutoff, psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and combined treatment have effect sizes above this cutoff. Discussion Statistical outcomes cannot be equated with clinical relevance. The "MID" may be used for pinpointing the cutoff for clinical relevance, but more work in this area is needed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Cuijpers P.,VU University Amsterdam | Cuijpers P.,Leuphana University | Sijbrandij M.,VU University Amsterdam | Koole S.L.,VU University Amsterdam | And 4 more authors.
World Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Although psychotherapy and antidepressant medication are efficacious in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders, it is not known whether they are equally efficacious for all types of disorders, and whether all types of psychotherapy and antidepressants are equally efficacious for each disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies in which psychotherapy and antidepressant medication were directly compared in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Systematic searches in bibliographical databases resulted in 67 randomized trials, including 5,993 patients that met inclusion criteria, 40 studies focusing on depressive disorders and 27 focusing on anxiety disorders. The overall effect size indicating the difference between psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy after treatment in all disorders was g=0.02 (95% CI: -0.07 to 0.10), which was not statistically significant. Pharmacotherapy was significantly more efficacious than psychotherapy in dysthymia (g=0.30), and psychotherapy was significantly more efficacious than pharmacotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder (g=0.64). Furthermore, pharmacotherapy was significantly more efficacious than non-directive counseling (g=0.33), and psychotherapy was significantly more efficacious than pharmacotherapy with tricyclic antidepressants (g=0.21). These results remained significant when we controlled for other characteristics of the studies in multivariate meta-regression analysis, except for the differential effects in dysthymia, which were no longer statistically significant. Copyright © 2013 World Psychiatric Association.

Cuijpers P.,VU University Amsterdam | Cuijpers P.,Leuphana University | Koole S.L.,VU University Amsterdam | Roca M.,University of the Balearic Islands | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Background: There is controversy about whether psychotherapies are effective in the treatment of subclinical depression, defined by clinically relevant depressive symptoms in the absence of a major depressive disorder. Aims: To examine whether psychotherapies are effective in reducing depressive symptoms, reduce the risk of developing major depressive disorder and have comparable effects to psychological treatment of major depression. Method: We conducted a meta-analysis of 18 studies comparing a psychological treatment of subclinical depression with a control group. Results: The target groups, therapies and characteristics of the included studies differed considerably from each other, and the quality of many studies was not optimal. Psychotherapies did have a small to moderate effect on depressive symptoms against care as usual at the post-test assessment (g = 0.35, 95% CI 0.23-0.47; NNT = 5, 95% CI 4-8) and significantly reduced the incidence of major depressive episodes at 6 months (RR = 0.61) and possibly at 12 months (RR = 0.74). The effects were significantly smaller than those of psychotherapy for major depressive disorder and could be accounted for by non-specific effects of treatment. Conclusions: Psychotherapy may be effective in the treatment of subclinical depression and reduce the incidence of major depression, but more high-quality research is needed.

Zacher H.,University of Queensland | Rosing K.,Leuphana University | Henning T.,Justus Liebig University | Frese M.,National University of Singapore
Psychology and Aging | Year: 2011

In this study, the authors investigated leader generativity as a moderator of the relationships between leader age, leader-member exchange, and three criteria of leadership success (follower perceptions of leader effectiveness, follower satisfaction with leader, and follower extra effort). Data came from 128 university professors paired with one research assistant each. Results showed positive relationships between leader age and leader generativity, and negative relationships between leader age and follower perceptions of leader effectiveness and follower extra effort. Consistent with expectations based on leadership categorization theory, leader generativity moderated the relationships between leader age and all three criteria of leadership success, such that leaders high in generativity were better able to maintain high levels of leadership success at higher ages than leaders low in generativity. Finally, results of mediated moderation analyses showed that leader-member exchange quality mediated these moderating effects. The findings suggest that, in combination, leader age and the age-related construct of generativity importantly influence leadership processes and outcomes. © 2011 American Psychological Association.

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