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Barreyro L.,Yeshiva University | Will B.,Yeshiva University | Bartholdy B.,Yeshiva University | Zhou L.,Yeshiva University | And 18 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2012

Cellular and interpatient heterogeneity and the involvement of different stem and progenitor compartments in leukemogenesis are challenges for the identification of common pathways contributing to the initiation and maintenance of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here we used a strategy of parallel transcriptional analysis of phenotypic long-term hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), short-term HSCs, and granulocyte-monocyte progenitors from individuals with high-risk (-7/7q-) AML and compared them with the corresponding cell populations from healthy controls. This analysis revealed dysregulated expression of 11 genes, including IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP), in all leukemic stem and progenitor cell compartments. IL1RAP protein was found to be overexpressed on the surface of HSCs of AML patients, and marked cells with the -7/7q- anomaly. IL1RAP was also overexpressed on HSCs of patients with normal karyotype AML and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, suggesting a pervasive role in different disease subtypes. High IL1RAP expression was independently associated with poor overall survival in 3 independent cohorts of AML patients (P = 2.2 × 10-7). Knockdown of IL1RAP decreased clonogenicity and increased cell death ofAML cells. Our study identified genes dysregulated in stem and progenitor cells in -7/7q- AML, and suggests that IL1RAP may be a promising therapeutic and prognostic target in AML and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology.

Savage K.I.,Queens University of Belfast | Gorski J.J.,Queens University of Belfast | Barros E.M.,Queens University of Belfast | Irwin G.W.,Queens University of Belfast | And 13 more authors.
Molecular Cell | Year: 2014

Mutations within BRCA1 predispose carriers to a high risk of breast and ovarian cancers. BRCA1 functions to maintain genomic stability through the assembly of multiple protein complexes involved in DNA repair, cell-cycle arrest, and transcriptional regulation. Here, we report the identification of a DNA damage-induced BRCA1 protein complex containing BCLAF1 and other key components of the mRNA-splicing machinery. In response to DNA damage, this complex regulates pre-mRNA splicing of a number of genes involved in DNA damage signaling and repair, thereby promoting the stability of these transcripts/proteins. Further, we show that abrogation of this complex results in sensitivity to DNA damage, defective DNA repair, and genomic instability. Interestingly, mutations in a number of proteins found within this complex have been identified in numerous cancer types. These data suggest that regulation of splicing by the BRCA1-mRNA splicing complex plays an important role in the cellular response to DNA damage. © 2014 The Authors.

Adighibe O.,University of Oxford | Leek R.D.,University of Oxford | Fernandez-Mercado M.,Leukaemia and Lymphoma Research Molecular Haematology Unit | Fernandez-Mercado M.,BioDonostia Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Cancer | Year: 2016

Background: Angiogenesis is not essential for tumours to develop and expand, as cancer can also grow in a non-angiogenic fashion, but why this type of growth occurs is unknown. Surprisingly, our data from mRNA transcription profiling did not show any differences in the classical angiogenic pathways, but differences were observed in mito-chondrial metabolic pathways, suggesting a key role for metabolic reprogramming. We then validated these results with mRNA profiling by investigating differential protein expression via immunohistochemistry in angiogenic and non-angiogenic non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Methods: Immunohistochemical staining for 35 angiogenesis-and hypoxia-related biomarkers were performed on a collection of 194 angiogenic and 73 non-angiogenic NSCLCs arranged on tissue microarrays. Sequencing of P53 was performed with frozen tissue samples of NSCLC. Results: The non-angiogenic tumours were distinguished from the angiogenic ones by having higher levels of proteins associated with ephrin pathways, mitochondria, cell biogenesis, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) regulation by oxygen and transcription of HIF-controlled genes but lower levels of proteins involved in the stroma, cell–cell signaling and adhesion, integrins, and Delta-Notch and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-related signaling. However, proteins classically associated with angiogenesis were present in both types of tumours at very comparable levels. Cytoplasmic expression of P53 was strongly associated with non-angiogenic tumours. A pilot investigation showed that P53 mutations were observed in 32.0% of angiogenic cases but in 71.4% of non-angiogenic tumours. Conclusions: Our observations thus far indicate that both angiogenic and non-angiogenic tumours experience hypoxia/HIF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway protein expression in a comparable fashion. However, angiogenesis does not ensue in the non-angiogenic tumours. Surprisingly, metabolic reprogramming seems to distinguish these two types of neoplastic growth. On the basis of these results, we raise the hypothesis that in some, but not in all cases, initial tissue remodeling and/or inflammation could be one of the secondary steps necessary to trigger angiogenesis. In the non-angiogenic tumours, in which neovascularisation fails to occur, HIF pathway activa-tion could be the driving force toward metabolic reprogramming. © 2016 Adighibe et al.

Ernst T.,University of Southampton | Ernst T.,Universitatsklinikum Jena | Chase A.J.,University of Southampton | Chase A.J.,Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory | And 24 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2010

Abnormalities of chromosome 7q are common in myeloid malignancies, but no specific target genes have yet been identified. Here, we describe the finding of homozygous EZH2 mutations in 9 of 12 individuals with 7q acquired uniparental disomy. Screening of a total of 614 individuals with myeloid disorders revealed 49 monoallelic or biallelic EZH2 mutations in 42 individuals; the mutations were found most commonly in those with myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (27 out of 219 individuals, or 12%) and in those with myelofibrosis (4 out of 30 individuals, or 13%). EZH2 encodes the catalytic subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), a highly conserved histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) methyltransferase that influences stem cell renewal by epigenetic repression of genes involved in cell fate decisions. EZH2 has oncogenic activity, and its overexpression has previously been causally linked to differentiation blocks in epithelial tumors. Notably, the mutations we identified resulted in premature chain termination or direct abrogation of histone methyltransferase activity, suggesting that EZH2 acts as a tumor suppressor for myeloid malignancies. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

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