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Lethbridge, Canada

Franke A.,University of Alberta | Galipeau P.,University of Quebec at Rimouski | Nikolaiczuk L.,Lethbridge College
Arctic | Year: 2013

This note describes an observation of infanticide in the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus tundrius). During the summer of 2011, a marked adult female and an unmarked adult male produced and hatched two eggs at a known and regularly monitored nest site. Motion-sensitive camera images indicated that the adults attended to the two nestlings and fed them in a manner that resulted in growth and development typical for the nestlings produced in the study population. During a period of intense rainfall, the two nestlings were left unattended for several hours; both nestlings were clearly distressed, and one was close to death. When the visibly wet marked adult female returned to the nest ledge, she killed and partially consumed the smaller and weaker of the two nestlings. The female flew from the nest ledge without feeding the remaining nestling and returned shortly afterward to kill and partially consume the second nestling. This is the first documentation of infanticide in wild Peregrine Falcons.


Beres B.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Carcamo H.A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Byers J.R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Clarke F.R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 3 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Plant Science | Year: 2013

The wheat stem sawfly (WSS) Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) is an economically destructive insect pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains. A significant resurgence of the insect pest in the southern prairies of Canada caused substantial economic losses from 1999 through 2007. Solid-stem cultivar selection is critical to the management of WSS but adoption of the use of these cultivars was low, which compounded losses at harvest. A study was conducted from 2001 to 2003 in southern Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada (1) to establish the range of susceptibility of hollow- and solid-stem varieties representing the major spring wheat classes and (2) to determine the impact of host plant on WSS population dynamics. The solid-stem varieties were generally superior at reducing damage and fitness response of WSS. However, in addition to the durum cultivars AC Navigator and AC Avonlea, the variety McKenzie, which was considered hollow, provided improved efficacy over other hollow-stem cultivars. Our study suggests solid-stem cultivars are highly effective but prone to inconsistent performance and should therefore be integrated into a holistic strategy for WSS that includes agronomics and biocontrol. A companion paper will report on the response of cultivars with novel sources of germplasm.


Peterson C.D.,Portland State University | Roberts M.C.,Simon Fraser University | Vanderburgh S.,Lethbridge College | Minor R.,Heritage Research Associates Inc. | Percy D.,Portland State University
Geomorphology | Year: 2014

The upper reaches of the lower Columbia River Valley (125km in length) comprise an alluvial system that is transitional between fluvial and fluvial-tidal dominance. Sinuous channels separate elongate islands (1-8km in length) and floodplains (0.5-12.7km in total width). Thirty-six floodplain overbank deposits are analyzed for age and depth, which demonstrate an average sedimentation rate of 1.6mka-1 during the last 5-6ka. Older core records confirm that long-term depositional rates are controlled by relative sea level rise. Rising floodplain groundwater surfaces, which followed relative sea level rise (~1.25mka-1), submerged isolated floodplain depressions. Low sedimentation rates in the isolated depressions (0.6-1.1mka-1) maintained large ellipsoidal bullseye lakes (7-22km2 in area) dating back to 3.5-4.0ka. Increases in the widths of the floodplains and bullseye lakes are associated with broadening of the incised valley (4-13km width) in the Portland Basin. Dated basal overbank deposits (0.5-5.0ka in age) and their separation distances establish channel migration rates of 0.3-1.9kmka-1. Shallow burial rates relative to rapid channel migration rates resulted in reworking of late Holocene floodplains (50-75% erosion) since 5ka in the upper reaches of the lower Columbia River Valley. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Peterson C.,Portland State University | Minor R.,Heritage Research Associates Inc. | Gates E.B.,128 NW Harriman Street | Vanderburgh S.,Lethbridge College | Carlisle K.,Hoover
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2012

Peterson, C.; Minor, R.; Gates, E.B.; Vanderburgh, S., and Carlisle, K., 2012. Correlation of tephra marker beds in latest Pleistocene and Holocene fill of the submerged Lower Columbia River Valley, Washington and Oregon, U.S.A. Seven tephra layers in the submerged fill of the Lower Columbia River Valley (LCRV) are radiocarbon dated (0.5-13 ka in age). They are correlated to reported eruption sources in the adjacent Cascade Range volcanic arc. The tephras provide a stratigraphic framework for the transgressive depositional filling of the tidal Columbia River system (∼200 km in length). The thickest and most continuous tephra marker beds in the LCRV are from the Mount Mazama set-O eruption at 7.7 ka. The eruption source for this tephra (1-10 m thick) is confirmed by glass geochemistry and radiocarbon dating of borehole samples from depths of -13 to -38 m (North American Vertical Datum of 1988 [NAVD88]). The Mazama set-O tephra conveniently divides the depositional sequences of the Early Holocene from the Late Holocene in the deep valley fill (50-120 m axial valley depth). A much deeper tephra, at -84 m, is attributed to Mount St. Helens set-S/J eruptions at ∼13 ka, which confirms the end of the Glacial Lake Missoula Flooding in the LCRV. Late Holocene tephra marker beds in the LCRV include the Mount St. Helens set-J/P eruptions (2.5-4.0 ka), set-W/T eruptions (∼AD 1480), and an intermediate-depth tephra, attributed to a Mount St. Helens or Mount Adams eruption (∼1.3 ka). The Late Holocene tephras date the ages of tidal flats and extensive floodplains throughout the length of the LCRV. The Late Holocene marker beds provide the first widespread constraints on wetland sedimentation rates and preservation potentials for archaeology sites in the LCRV. © Coastal Education & Research Foundation 2012.


Beres B.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Carcamo H.A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Byers J.R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Clarke F.R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 4 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Plant Science | Year: 2013

The wheat stem sawfly (WSS) Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) is an economically destructive insect pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains. Solid stem cultivar selection is one critical component to the integrated management of WSS. A significant resurgence of WSS in the southern prairies of Canada caused substantial economic losses from 1999 through 2007, which was compounded by the low adoption rate of solid-stem cultivars. A study was conducted from 2003 to 2005 in southern Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada: (1) to characterize resistance levels in solid-stem germplasm derived from S615 and alternate genetic backgrounds, and (2) to determine the impact of host plant tolerance on WSS population dynamics. The tetraploid cultivar Golden Ball and its hexaploid derivative G9608B1-L-12J11BF02 were the most consistent at reducing damage, larval growth (fitness), and fecundity of WSS. The challenge will be to maintain this level of efficacy as the Canada Western Red Spring phenotype is reintroduced into the germplasm. Our study suggests solid-stem cultivars are highly effective but prone to inconsistent performance and should therefore be integrated into a holistic strategy for WSS that includes agronomics and biocontrol.

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